Cities are noted for their multicultural plurality, which can lead to a mixing of ethnicities, religions and cultures. It can lead to a mosaic of ghettos. A ghetto is a ‘portion of a city in which members of a minority group live especially because of social, legal or economic pressure’. Firstly, many new immigrants arrive with limited sources, and discrimination can cause higher levels of unemployment and lower incomes among these groups.

As ethnic groups are forced to concentrate in areas of poor housing, this pushes out groups from other races. Living in an environment with similar types of people to themselves may reduce their feeling of isolation and provide a sense of safety. In some cases, living in an ethnic cluster is a defensive reaction related to a fear of conflict with surrounding groups. A closely knit ethnic community provides security against abuse and racist attacks.

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For example, Southpaw is home to a huge South Asian population, one f the biggest concentrations outside Indian. In 1981 , it was the scene of devastating race riots, which saw a pub burnt down and hundreds of Asian and right-wing skinheads fighting in the street. The majority population is generally hostile or unfriendly to new arrivals. Avoidance of outside contact is sometimes another reason for ethnic clustering. Residents can support each other and establish their own shops, services and places of worship to serve their community’s needs.

Southpaw has ozone of Indian restaurants and a huge Asian shopping centre. Preservation of identity and promotion of cultural heritage are also important reasons for clustering. Groups with their own language, religion and social organization often have a strong wish to remain distinctive. These ethnic groups encourage friendship and marriages and reduce contact, except via schools, which might undermine the culture and traditions of the ethnic groups.

Finally, some authors have written about the attack function as reason for ethnic concentration. A group can plan and carry out activities that promote solidarity and help to ensure survival in a possibly hostile environment. These activities can be peaceful, such as protests against racial discrimination. To conclude, ghettos form for many economic, cultural and social cultural factors. The overall picture shows a pattern of economic disadvantage Of minority groups, who continue to struggle with discrimination and racial harassment.