Range Improvement Final

What is soil ripping? Why is it done?
break up compacted soil layers
-improve moisture infiltration
-allow deeper root penetration
-vary the depth of spacing to achieve results
What is a land imprinter? How does it work, and what does it do?
rangeland pitters=modified rangeland disks
-rotary pitters
-drum/calkins pitter
-rotary pitter
-bulldozed basins
-land imprinter
Wildfire
unplanned iginition of fire, with or without control efforts
Prescribed Fire
the deliberate application and control of fire to achieve specific objectives
Convenience Burning
scarcely planned application of fire, with little attempt at control
Controlled Burning
planned application of fire and its control. Need to consider timing, location, and control effects
Advantages of Prescribed Fire
-kill, suppress, or prevent invasions of undesirables
-inc forage production
-alter community composition or structure
-inc wildlife habitate
-low expense
-high applicability
-creates a diverse environment
Disadvantages or cautions
can be very unpredictable (risky)
-does destroy the forage base
-not very selective
-wont generally improve poor-condition range
-requires careful management
-not one-time deal, usually must retreat
Describe the effects of fire as a “natural” part of most rangelands
-its “natural” to most rangelands
-grassland maintenance
-patch/landscape scale diversity- mosaic burning
-fire-adapted species
What are the 3 requirements for “combustion”? Since we can assume that oxygen is ALWAYS available on a rangeland, what are the 3 requirements for a rangeland fire?
1. fuel 2. dry season 3. ignition source
What does an individual plant’s response to fire depend on?
-fire frequency
-season and climate
-type of plant (sprouters, nonsprouters, rhizomes, stolons, fire avoiders, fruiting characteristics)
-soil moisture
What variables must be considered when planning a prescribed fire?
-Temperature
-Wind speed and direction
-Relative humidity
-fuel amount
-fuel type
-topography
-control equipment type and availability
What are the temperature thresholds for fire behavior?
-60-70oF=firebrand distance increases ->80oF=dangerous fire conditions
Wind speed thresholds?
6mph=min speed for non-continous fuels
8mph=will consume woody fuels even without volatile oils
>20mph=red flag cond-don’t burn
Relative humidity?
<20% red flag-don’t burn
20-60% relativily uniform fire behavior
>60% fire doesn’t carry well
What types of rangeland fire fuel are
highly volatile?
-chaparrel, conifers, dead aspen, dead juniper
Moderately volatile?
-sagebrush, oaks, live aspen
Minimally volatile?
-grasses, hardwoods
When planning a prescribed fire, what is the minimum volume of MOBILE water you should have on hand?
-pumper truck with 100 gallons
Describe the different types of equipment we have for igniting prescribed fires. What are some advantages and disadvantages of each?
-Ground
-matches
-fuses
-propane
-drip torach
-Aerial
-helitorch
-DAIP(delayed aerial ignition device)
What 6 types of ignition patterns
1.Head fire- carried by the wind, in the direction the wind is traveling

2.Backfire- burning against the wind, large fire line and start fire, burn in strips to push backwards against the wind

3.Strip head- similar to back fire. Moving fire in strips and starting down-wind but give little room to run with the wind before getting to the fire line and increasing fire line as you go against wind

4.Center/areal-ignite the center first and burn then ignite the perimeter but have a fireline on the downwind side

5.Flank fire- similar to a strip head fire. Zigzag for fireline and start head fire at the base of the fire line and burn into wind

6.Point source- similar to the strip headfire. Burn small line patches then light the perimeter of firelines.

What are the components of a field weather kit? Why is it necessary to have one on site during a prescribed burn?
-check relative humidly, wind speed, temp
Explain why a recovering burn (whether prescribed or wildfire) can be a magnet for grazing animals. What does this suggest about the need for management of these areas?
promotes native plants
-Diversity in plant palatability and early successional species
Magnetization of Grazers for Grasslands:
-Prescribed burn to reduce fine fuels (fire intensity)
-Increase forage yield
-Increase palatability
Magnetization of Grazers for Shrublands
-Burn shrubs to promote grass (forage) growth
-Burn shrubs to prevent increasing wildfire danger
Magnetization of Grazers for Forests
-Burn understory to prevent fuel ladder buildup
-Burn to eliminate duff layer and allow understory growth
Semi?arid ranges Grazing Rest
-No livestock (not even trailing) for the first fall
-No grazing for the first year
-Light grazing only for the 2ndyear
More moist ranges Grazing Rest (SE, KS Tallgrass, etc)
-Graze right away to take advantage of flush of growth and fire?tolerant species.
Tobosagrass, Chaparral ranges Grazing Rest
-Graze during first growing season to take advantage of more palatable growth
Chaparral Grazing Rest
-amount and distribution of fuel influences fire frequency
-crown fires are common in hot, windy conditions when shrubs are dense
-many shrubs are resprouters
Tallgrass prairie Grazing Rest
-well adapted to fire, growing points generally protected beneath soils
-rapid nutrient turnover
-fine, highly flammable fuels
Intermediate Disturbance Hypothesis
states that local species diversity is maximized when ecological disturbance is neither too rare nor too frequent.

small-scale, controlled fires are thought to maximize biodiveristy

basic recommendations for prescribed fire in: coniferous forest
-crown fires: not desirable for forestry
-some systems: crown fire is natural
-ground fire benefits:
-inc water productions
-inc forage
-recreation ease
-preventing catastrophic wildfire
-aesthetics
basic recommendations for prescribed fire in: chaparral
-Arizona
-fire not implemented
-15-25 year intervals
-California
-prescribed often high intensity
-forage effects are beneficial the first year, but decrease rapidly
-fire exclusion has created larger and more intense fires
basic recommendations for prescribed fire in: juniper woodland
-burn effectiveness depends on whether the juniper species sprouts after fire
-burn before juniper becomes so dense theres no understory to carry fire
basic recommendations for prescribed fire in: sagebrush-grassland
-burn when:
-sagebrush is more than 50% cover
-perennial grasses are at least 20% cover
-where livestock grazing is primary use
-late summer/early fall
basic recommendations for prescribed fire in: desert grassland
-fire was never very important in deserts
-desert grassland depends on fire for shrub suppression
-repeated burning (5-10 year intervals) may help to stop or reverse brush invasion
basic recommendations for prescribed fire in: mid/shortgrass prairie
-historic fires helped prevent brush invasions
-most shortgrass is set back by fire, at least for 1st year, subsequent years showed less effect
-burning during moist years allows best grass response
basic recommendations for prescribed fire in: tallgrass prairie
-fire is natural beneficial
-stimulates new growth
In our prescribed fire case study, why did the Fire Manager of the Santa Rosa Plateau Ecological Reserve have 50 pumper engines and a 150-member crew to burn 130 acres?
-burn small plots allows less smoke and less chance of escape
-to help keep wildfire from destroying and protect native plants
Rodents and rabbits may especially cause problems for new range seedings and for low-condition rangelands. Why is this?
-their numbers inc because they’re eating lots of seeds
Rodents and rabbits can be controlled through poison, trapping, shooting, or “exclusion” (i.e. fences). Which of these is most effective for control over larger areas? Why?
1. Poison-most effective over large area because you can spray for them.
2. Trapping
3. Shooting
4. Exclusion
best control options for: jackrabbits
-high cyclic, rapid pop inc
-forage preference similar to cattle and sheep
-best control:
-mesh fencing
-hunting/shooting
-baits/repellants (poisons)
best control options for: pocket gophers
-may be useful turning and mixing soil
-can inc gullies and erosion
-forages mostly below ground, eat forbes so don’t plant
-best control:
-baits
-“burrow builder” machine-makes burrows and place poison in them
best control options for: prairie dogs
-causes the most obvious rodent damage to rangelands
-compete with cattle for grass because similar preferences
-best control:
-baits
-fumigation
best control options for: ground squirrels
-may cause localized, severe damage
-best control:
-bait
best control options for: kangaroo rats
-forage mostly on seeds, get H2O from seeds
-“caches” large quantities of seeds
-best control:
-baits
best control options for: Mice
-eat seeds from plants
-damage rangelands
-spread disease
-best control:
-bait
best control options for: grasshoppers
-present almost everywhere
-specially use grasses
-generally destroy about 20% of annual production
-best control:
-leaf sprays more effective than baits/
-treat very wide area
best control options for: Mormon crickets
-most damage to sagebrush/bunchgrass rangelands, nearby pastures and croplands
-more localized, easier to control than grasshoppers
-best control:
-poison baits across migration path
-oil/water barriers
best control options for: harvester ants
-large nest, with 35ft diameter bare areas
-forage mostly for seeds, but cut nearby vegetation to clear nest
-best control:
-sprinkle poison bait around nest
What is the RAATs method of controlling rangeland insects?
-Reduced area agent treatments
-both are and agent are reduced
-works aerially (insecticides)
-treat alternating strips
-apply agent at reduced rate (50% label suggest)
Non-lethal for controlling coyotes
Livestock husbandry
Fencing
Frightening
Guard animals
Repellants/aversion training
Reproductive disruption
Lethal for controlling coyotes
Targeted individuals
Population reduction
Poison neck collars
helicopter assault rifles kills
Why is fencing absolutely necessary for proper management of rangelands?
-structural improvements
What 5 benefits of rangeland fencing did we discuss in class?
1. Establish boundaries
2. distribute grazing, regulate stocking rates, reduce herding-related labor, allow rotation, deferment, and resting of grazing, and limit straying, trespassing, and injury to animals
3. protect seeded areas, soil, and other resources, or protect animals from hazardous areas
4. separate or aggregate animals by kind, sex, age, stage, etc.
5. maintain friendlier relationships with neighbors
What are the three categories of rangeland fencing? Describe how each is used.
Boundary fence
•Prevents animals from trespassing to/from neighboring properties; follow ownership lines

Drift fence/cross fence
•Large division of land into function ranges for grazing management

Division fence
•Divide larger ranges into smaller grazing units or special-use areas

What 5 issues must be considered when planning a fencing project?
1. Water
-Will fencing provide best possible grazing distribution around existing water?
-Will adequate water be available in all pastures/ranges?
2. Management
-Separate ranges required for differently managed herds.
-Divide range into enough pastures to carry out appropriate grazing system.
-Size of pastures depends on grazing capacity and use.
3. Access
-How will stock enter the pasture system?
-Will personnel enter (i.e. trucks, horses, atvs, etc)?
-Prevent interference with/from firebreaks, roads, trails, etc.
4. Existing Barriers
-Tie in to existing fences
-Utilize deep gullies, ridges, ledges, deep water
5. Specific Placement
-Avoid erosive areas (livestock tend to trail along fences)
-Place fences along ridge crests
Why aren’t wooden fences used much on rangeland anymore?
-high labor cost
-scarcity of poles/rails
-less common
-but used for aesthetic reasons
What are the advantages and disadvantages to electric fences?
Advantages:
-control livestock, wildlife, predators
-lower cost

Disadvantages:
-high maintenance
-can harm animals

(can be temporary or permanent)

Treatment for Redberry Juniper
o Must kill the roots!
• apply Picloram to soil or to foliage
• power grubbing
Treatment for Prickly Pear
o Kill the pads…
• Spray with Picloram
• Be sure to cover all pads
o Best option = Prescribed fire + herbicide
• Be sure you have ample grass to carry a high-intensity fire
• Follow with Picloram application
Treatment for Sand Sagebrush
Best option is Chemical (Aerial)
2, 4-D + diesel between may
Treatment for Ashe Juniper
Topkilling works fine
•Apply Picloram to soil or to foliage
•Power grubbing
•Don’t typically have to get the roots out
Dozing, blading, chaining, fire, etc.
Treatment for Mesquite
Mesquite re-sprouts, so you must kill the roots
•IPT – Basal spray w/Triclopyr
•Foliar
Soil temp must be 75 degrees, mesquite leave must be dark green
Mix of Triclopyr and Cloyralid or of Reclaim and Remedy
•Mechanical
Power grubbing, root plowing, etc.
Treatment for Cholla
Kill the stems and canes…and the roots
Herbicide
•Spray with Picloram
•Be sure to cover all stems
Mechanical
•Power grubbing when soil moisture is good (to ensure root removal)
Treatment for Shin-Oak
Aerial or IPT chemical application
Tebuthiuron pellets applied in Oct-April
Treatment for Salt Cedar
Chemical control
•Arsenal applied july-sept
Must revegetate with desirable species
Follow up with control of re-growth
Treatment for Yucca
•Chemical control, either aerial or IPT
But don’t IPT the dense “whorls” or colonies
•Dicamba or triclopyr
Treatment for Cheatgrass
o Chemical
• Apply plateau or round-up
Grazing
•Graze heavily in early spring (twice, with a short rest between)
Mechanical
•Till or disk in early spring
Treatment for Huisache
Chemical
•IPT (Aerial is not consistently successful)
•Mix of
GrazonNext HL 2.1 pt/ac
Tordon 22K 13 oz/ac
Grazon P+D 72 oz/ac
Mechanical
•Get the roots out!
•Power grubbing…
Keys to Range Improvement #1
1. Understand the Ecological Relationships at the Site
-Base treatments on the biological and ecological limits and requirements of the ecosystem
-Take into account the selective pressures of arid and semi?arid rangelands
-Improvements are site?specific, since ecological conditions are site?specific
Keys to Range Improvement #2
2. Long?term Success Depends on Proper Long?term Management
-No treatment can compensate for ongoing poor management
-Managers and planners should be realistic in expectations
-Coordinate treatments across jurisdictions (federal, state, private)
Keys to Range Improvement #3
3. Treatments Should Directly Address Overall Goals
-Consider Treatments in Series, Instead of Alone
-Integrate goals for livestock, wildlife, ecosystem services, etc into treatment plan
-Pay special attention to problem species: brush, weeds, animal pests