RECR301: Ch 14 & 15

Managerial Controlling
Ensuring that actual performance is inline with intended performance and taking corrective action,if necessary.
Feedforward Control
Anticipatory action taken to ensure that problems do not occur.
Concurrent control
Corrective action taken during the production or delivery process to ensure that standards are being met
Feedback control
Actions taken after the activity, product, or service has been completed.
Units of measure or criteria against which results are evaluated.
Tangible standards
Standards for performance that are identifiable and measurable
Intangible standards
Standards for performance results that are difficult to measure and often relate to human characteristics (e.g. attitude and morale).
Motion study
An analysis of work activities to determine how to make a job easier and quicker to do.
Time study
A technique for analyzing jobs to determine time standards for performing each job.
Strategic control points (strategic standards)
Performance criteria chosen for assessment because they are key indicators of overall performance.
Exception principle
Concept that supervisors should concentrate their investigations on activities that deviate substantially from standards.
The technique of evaluating some number of items from a larger group to determine whether the group meets acceptable quality standards.
A financial plan that projects expected revenues and expenditures during a set period.
Operating budget
The assignment of dollar allocations to the costs and expenses needed to run the business, based on expected revenues.
Incremental budgeting
A technique for projecting revenues and expenses based on history.
Zero-base budgeting
The process of assessing,on a benefit-and-cost basis, all activities to justify their existence.
Personalized conflict
conflict between individuals that occurs because the two parties do not like one another.
Constructive or functional conflict
The end result of conflict is a win-win situation for all concerned.
Conflict-resolution styles
Approaches to resolving conflict based on weighing desired degrees of cooperativeness and assertiveness.
Reciprocity reflex
One good turn deserves another in return.
interest-based negotiating
understanding why the other party wants what he or she wants, and then working toward a solution that satisfies those needs as well as your own.
Any individual or group problem or dissatisfaction employees can channel upward to management, including discrimination.
A formal complaint presented by the union to management that alleges a violation of the labor agreement.
Grievance procedure
Negotiated series of steps in a labor agreement for processing grievances, beginning at the supervisory level and ending with arbitration.
Complaint procedure
A management-designed series of steps for handling employee complaints that usually provides for a number of appeals before a final decision.
Alternative dispute resolution (ADR)
Approaches to processing and deciding employee complaints internally as an alternative to lawsuits, usually for disputes involving discharge and/or employment discrimination.
ODR (online dispute resolution)
An alternative approach similar to ADR, but the dispute process is handled online.
is one of the five primary managerial functions.
Controlling is most closely related to:
Strategic planning begins with
establishing goals and making decisions that enable an organization to accomplish its objectives.
1) have a goal
2) incorporate training
3) seek employee input
4) report cards (metrics)
5) break a few rules
The closeness of supervisory follow up is based on:
an employee’s experience, initiative, dependability, and resourcefulness.
Characteristics of effective controls
understandable, timely, suitable and economical, indicational, and flexible.
Steps in the control process:
1) Planning function: set standards appropriate to the task
2) performance is measured against these standards.

Motion and time studies
Employee participation
Strategic control points
Checking performance against standards
Personal observation
Oral and written reports
Spot checks
Sampling techniques
Taking corrective action

Budgetary Control:
Supervisory participation in budget making

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Supervising within the budget

Cost control and the supervisor
Sharing information and responsibility with employees.

Maintaining cost awareness

Responding to a cost-cutting order

Other control areas:
specialized controls

Controlling and the other managerial functions

Supervisory guidelines for resolving complaints and grievances.
1)Make time available
2) listen patiently and with an open mind.
3) Distinguish facts from opinions
4) Determine the real issue
5) Check and consult
6) Avoid setting precedents
7) Exercise self-control
8) Minimize delays in reaching a decision.
9) Explain decisions clearly and sensitively.
10) Keep records and documents.
11) Do not fear a challenge.