Review of Literature
Coccidiosis is a dangerous disease caused by a group of parasites belonging to genus Eimeria. In poultry it causes mild to severe signs and symptoms. Eimeria reside and attack at various sites of gut which majorly can be divided into cecal and intestinal coccidiosis. These parasites cause high morbidities and mortalities leading to heavy economic losses.
Major clinical signs of coccidiosis arise due to production of reactive oxygen species which result due to attack of host immune system invasion at Eimeria affected cells. These reactive oxygen specie lead to destruction of the tissues and lead to bleeding
Antioxidants have been proved to be beneficial for controlling avian coccidiosis. A wide range of antioxidants have been proved to be effective against avian coccidiosis. Among all available antioxidants plants are the most potent and economic
Essential oils obtained from aromatic plants have been proved most potent among all botanicals. A number of botanicals have been tested against coccidiosis and they have shown
Abbas et al. 2015 studied the effects of aqueous methanolic extract from Saccharum officinarum on the sporulation and morphology of oocysts of four Eimeria species of poultry. They used sporulation inhibition bioassay to evaluate the activity of Saccharum officinarum extract on the sporulation of coccidian oocysts. They exposed unsporulated oocysts to six concentrations of S. officinarum in 10% dimethyl sulfoxide solution (weight by volume; 10, 5, 2.5, 1.25, 0.625 and 0.31 percent) while DMSO and potassium dichromate solution (K2Cr2O7) were kept as control groups by them. They confirmed sporulation of the oocysts by examining sporocysts. Results of their study proved that these botanicals wer effective aginst all Eimeria species. They observed Inhibition of sporulation in dose dependent manner.
Kostadinovi? e. al 2016 planned a study for investigation of investigate the effects of Artemisia absinthium essential oil on the enzymatic activity of various oxidative enzymes in broilers infected with an oocyst mixture of Eimeria tenella, Eimeria mitis and Eimeria necatrix, compared to coccidicide salinomycine. The results obtained in this study indicate changes in the content and the activity of the non-enzymatic and enzymatic antioxidative protective systems in blood hemolysates of infected chickens.. Rseults indicated Artemisia absinthium essential oil as effective in decreasing the intensity of bloody diarrhoea, as well in lowering the oocyst output of the preventively treated and infected broilers; hence it may be used as a prophylactic feed additive. Artemisia absinthium essential oil also showed an important role in the activation of antioxidative protection systems in infected broilers.
Oktay et. Al. 2002 showed the antioxidant activity of water and ethanol extracts of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) seed by a number of antioxidant assays. These antioxidant activities were compared to standard antioxidants such as butylated hydroxyanisole, butylated hydroxytoluene and a-tocopherol. These extracts both aqueous and ethanolic showed great antioxidant activitt. They claimed 100 mg of water and ethanol extracts exhibited 99.1% and 77.5% inhibition of peroxidation in linoleic acid system, respectively, and greater than the same dose of a-tocopherol (36.1%). The effective reducing power, free radical scavenging, superoxide anion radical scavenging, hydrogen peroxide scavenging, and metal chelating activities were shown by both extracts of Foeniculum vulgare. These antioxidant properties were depended on concentration and increased with increase in amount of sample. Additionally, they determined total phenolic compounds in the aqueous and ethanol extracts of Foeniculum vulgare seeds as gallic acid equivalents. Results of their indicated that the fennel (F. vulgare) seed is a source of natural antioxidant.
Materials and Methods
3.1. Plant materials
Seeds of Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) will be bought from local market in Faisalabad (Pakistan), their identification and authentication would be made by a botanist by comparing with the specimens stored in the herbarium of Department of Botany, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan.
These seeds would be undergone ——- process for the extraction of oils and their——– test would be performed to confirm composition. And they would be stored at —- temperature until utilization
3.2. Collection of coccidial oocysts
Chicken guts suspected for natural coccidiosis would be used for collection of coccidian managed from local markets, poultry sale points and farms having coccidiosis outbreak. The isolated materials confirmed having coccidiosis microscopically will be placed in separate desiccators containing twenty five percent laboratory grade sodium hypochlorite at a ratio of 4:1 for 25 minutes to discard debris. About four times more water will be added to the desiccators for removal of the sodium hypochlorite and sediment will be obtained. Ryle et. Al 1976 method would be used for extraction of coccidial oocyst.
3.3. Sporulation of Oocysts
The materials obtained from positive samples will be placed in 2.5% potassium dichromate solution in petri dishes making a thickness of 6 mm. The petri dishes will be covered partially to allow the passage of oxygen and would be kept for incubation at 370C for 72 hours, in an environment having 60-80% humidity (Ryley et al., 1976). Then this incubated material will be stirred off and on to ensure the oxygenation. 60–80% humidity will be maintained by placing water in two petri dishes in the incubator during the whole sporulation procedure. examination for sporocysts by taking a drop from this material using inverted microscope would be used for confirmation of sporulation .