Review of Related Lit

In this chapter, the researchers will present the concepts and researches including the differences of extroversion and introversion, how introversion affects second language acquisition, and he impact of these personality types on SSL/FEEL learners. The four microfossils will also be covered under the effects of the two personality types in second language acquisition. Conceptual Literature There are differences Beethoven extroversion and introversion. Extrovert characters tend to be sociable, while the introverted tend to be private.

The activity of the extrovert is mainly focused in external world and that of the introvert inward upon himself or herself. Extroverts are sociable, sensation- seekers, lively and active, have many friends and need excitement in everything they do. However, they are easily distracted from studying, partly because of their sociability and partly as a result of their weak ability to concentrate for long periods. On the other hand, Essence & Chant (1982) define introverts as quiet, prefer reading rather than meeting people and talking to others, have few but close friends and usually avoid excitement.They are motivated from within and they are oriented towards the inner realm of ideas, imagery, and reflection. Furthermore, Ghana (2006) defines extrovert and introvert as two characterizations of how one relates to the outside world.

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Extrovert means a person more interested in what is happening around him than in his own thoughts and emotions. That is to say, the extrovert experiences the world more through contact with others and shared experience than through self-examination or study. Fifth problem were to come about for an extrovert, they would more than just likely find someone to help.On the contrary, introvert is a person who is more interested in his own thoughts and feelings than in things outside himself, and is often shy and unwilling to speak or join in activities with others. In there words, an introvert tends to remain “in” oneself. If the same problem were to arise, that person might open a book or pace back and forth to come to a solution. In the past decades, many SLAB theorists claimed that extroverts are better than introverts in learning and using L 2 in oral and written discourse.According to Cook (1991), extroverts, who tend to be sociable, are more likely to join groups, more inclined to engage in conversations both inside and outside the classroom.

As such, they take full advantage of language-use opportunities. It has been suggested that extroverted learners an interact with other L 2 users resulting for them to obtain ideas. The classroom learner may also benefit from being extroverted by getting more practice in using the LA. In addition to that, Safari and Namesakes (2012) claim that the notion of extroversion and introversion stems from trait theories of personality developed in psychology.Trait theorists try to identify this in a human being’s personality that is relatively stable, and it is believed, least partly innate.

According to them, the majority of studies on the personality research in SLAB have looked at the relationship between the extroversion- introversion dimension of personality and different linguistic variables. They said that extroversion and introversion are used to gauge two styles. Of course, everyone is extroverted and introverted in some degree, but not in the same degree. Extrovert characters tend to be gregarious, while the introverted tend to be private.The activity of the extrovert is seen as directed towards the external world and that of the introvert inward upon himself or herself. Extroverts are sociable, like parties, have many friends and need excitement in everything they do; they are sensation-seekers and are lively ND active.

Extroverts are easily distracted from studying, partly as a result of their gregariousness and partly because of their weak ability to concentrate for long periods. On the other hand, introverts are quiet, prefer reading rather than meeting people and talking to others, have few but close friends and usually avoid excitement (Essence & Chant, 1982).In other words, extroverts are motivated from without and their attention is directed outward. They are people who appear relaxed, confident, and have trouble understanding life until they have lived it.

When they are feeling bad, low in energy, or stressed, they are likely to look outside themselves for relief. They get energize from the outside world, and they look for meaning outside of themselves. Introverts, on the other hand, are motivated from within and they are oriented towards the inner realm of ideas, imagery, and reflection. They get their energy from within rather than from the outside world.An introvert values quiet time alone for thinking while an extrovert wants time with others for action. Introverts believe that they cannot live life until they have understood it. They are seen as reserved, quiet, shy, aloof, and distant.

When an introvert is tired, stressed or feels bad he is likely to withdraw to a quiet place and engage in reflective activity that only involves herself/h myself. Introverts look to the inner world for energy and meaning. According to the findings of Sullivan (2014), personality traits, extroversion and introversion specifically, have a major effect on second language acquisition process.

It seems evident that extroverted learners, who use the second language to intermingle without inhabitation, talk more fluently, tend to take actions with less reflection, work better in groups and excel during classes with high levels f activity. It is to put up their need to communicate outside of class time without the pressure of the classroom. Extroverted students easily communicate in the second language even though they might not produce precise output.

These features influence their ways of learning in the second language so it IS believed that extroverts are more successful in communication.On the other hand, introverts tend to be exerts talk less and reflect more before acting, like to be quiet, like to work independently or with one or two other people. They tend to be more passive rather than actively social. In addition, many introverted students have an obsession with producing accurate grammatically sentences with native- like accent. The characteristics that are shown by introverts are believed that they are in certain components of the second language. Although introverts have all these characteristics, extroverts are still more successful especially in communication.Research Literature According to Anima (1 978), second language acquisition may be more difficult for some people due to certain social factors. One highly studied social factor impeding language development is the issue of extroverts versus introverts.

Studies have shown that extroverts (or unreserved and outgoing people) qua ire a second language better than introverts (or shy people). His one particular study reflected this point. The subjects were 72 Canadian high school students from grades 8, 10 and 12 who were studying French as a second language.Anima gave them all questionnaires to establish their psychological profiles, which also included a French listening test and imitation test.

He found that approximately 70% of the students with the higher grades (B or higher) would consider themselves extroverts. Extroverts ill be willing to try to communicate even if they are not sure they will succeed. Introversion has the greatest chance of negatively affecting SLAB Students that are afraid of embarrassing themselves by speaking incorrectly or by not being able to speak at all may try to avoid opportunities that would otherwise aid their learning.Sharp’s (2008) study also examines the relationships which exist between personality, especially extroversion and introversion and second language learning by using the Myers Briggs Type Indicator (AMBIT) which is a personality indicator to 100 Hong Kong university undergraduates.

Strategy Inventory for Language Learning (S. I. L. L. ) and a standardized test for language proficiency were also used to determine learning strategies of the students.

The results however showed that there was no significant relationship found.However, there is a slightly higher score related to introverted students. Housemaids and Managua (201 1) on the other hand, focused on just one macrocosms in English which is writing. The aim of their study is to investigate the impact of self-correction methods as an alternative to the traditional teacher-correction method, and also to evaluate he impact of personality traits of extroversion/introversion on the writing progress of the pre-intermediate learners in Tehran, Iran.On the researcher’s observation, they found out that teachers pay no attention to the personality traits of the students and they disregard the fact that every human being is different when it comes to traits. To see the impact of the two factors affecting the writing progress of the students, Nelson English Language Test (NELL) and Essence Personality Questionnaire were used.

120 female pre- intermediate participants were also selected to be the respondents of the est.. Again, like the previous study, no significant effect was showed in the results of the obtained results.

Nevertheless, self-correction method showed to be significantly effective at 0. 5. These imply that extroverts and introverts can improve their writing and being extroverted or introverted will have no significant effect on students’ rate of progress. Sullivan (2014) also determined the role of extrovert and introvert personalities in acquiring a second language. The researcher believes that for second language learners to make maximum progress with their own learning styles, their individual preferences must be recognized and attended to.Personality is considered to be a pattern of unique characteristics that give a person’s behavior a kind of consistency and individuality.

Therefore, the enclosed study, which is entitled “The Role of Extrovert and Introvert Personality in Second language Acquisition”, tried to shed light on the relationship between learners’ personalities and second language acquisition process. In other words, it aimed at drawing attention to how individual differences of students as being extroverts or introverts could affect the language acquisition process.The duty discusses the results of some studies concerning this issue as well as the point views of researchers and scholars who have focused on the effect of extrovert and introvert personality on acquiring a second language. To accomplish the goals of this study, 20 students of English Department, Faculty of Arts, Mistrust University ,Libya were handed out a questionnaire to figure out the effect of their personalities on the learning process. Finally, to be surer about the role of personality in a second language acquisition process, the same students who were given the questionnaire were observed in theirSSL classes.

The tabular results have indicated that some students like to imitate a conversation and do the bulk of the talking easily even with a stranger, participate in group activities. All these characteristics illustrate that students’ personalities can be different and it became clear which students are extroverts and which ones are introverts. As it is shown in the tabular results, 55% of the samples were extroverts while 45% of them were introverts.On the other hand, the bar result shows the percentage of the effect of personality type on the process of language acquisition as 65% of dents’ personalities affected their acquisition while 35% of them did not show that they had been affected by their personality type.

As far as classroom observation is concerned, it can be said that extroverts are unlike introverts concerning second language acquisition. It has been found that extroverts easily communicate in English classes, even when they were not sure of their answers, they would succeed.Besides, they were likely to try out a large amount and variety of different word types with high speech rates and legible pronunciation. Meanwhile, introvert students seemed to avoid interaction in English classes because they might be afraid Of embarrassing themselves when speaking incorrectly or being unable to speak. When they spoke; however, they produced well-formed sentences taking time to compose them. In addition, when they were asked to read out loud in the class, they were reading slowly and carefully with good pronunciation but with low speech rates.Based on classroom observation, it has been noticed that extrovert students communicate more fluently in English than introvert students who were often shy and unwilling to speak or join collaborative activities. The characteristics that are shown by introverts are believed that they are in certain components of the second language.

Although introverts have all these characteristics, extroverts are still more successfully especially in communication. Moreover, Zoning (2005) studied data-based report that focuses on one particular personality dimension, extroversion, in relation to oral performance in a second language (1. ). The data collected consisted of 40 video-taped performances of Form 4 (Grade 10) secondary students who undertook a practice School-Based Assessment (SABA) group interaction task. Besides analyzing the correlation between assessment scores and degree of extroversion, the group interactions were also transcribed and coded for a range of discourse features of group oral language production, such as hesitation, accuracy and mean length of utterance, which Were then analyses in relation to the level of extroversion of the participants.In addition, an in- depth analysis of the discourse and interaction of two participants was undertaken. One was classified as an introvert, with a score of 1 on the extroversion scale on the Essence Personality Questionnaire (PEPS), and the there was classified as an extrovert, with a score of 12 on the extroversion scale.

Overall, correlations between the assessment scores and level of extroversion turned out to be low. Among the seven discourse features analyses, hesitation phenomenon was found to have a statistically significant relation to extroversion.The in-depth analysis of the nature and contents of the discourse and interaction of the two participants, however, revealed that the extrovert demonstrated a more active participation in the assigned assessment task, and the extrovert’s speech generally demonstrated a higher level of accuracy and fluency. Far, Marijuana, and Gharry (2014) presented an investigation of reading strategies used by extroverts and introverts. They stated that the ability to comprehend texts written in English helps to learn the target language.It is also very significant for academic studies, enjoyment, survival and others. However, it was felt that most students fail to understand texts. As different writers state the causes of the failure, different suggestions are also given to minimize the failure of students’ comprehension skills as a solution.

The relevance of the ability to comprehend texts, the researcher’s experience and other views on the causes of the problem as well as the solutions initiated the researcher to figure out factors that affect students’ reading comprehension ability.Two of the most examined dimensions of personality that have an affective influence on language learning are extroverted and introverted. In the current thesis the researcher first defines and looks at the different studies conducted to examine the relationship between the two factors and second language acquisition (SLAB). Results show that extroverts seem to take full advantage of language-use opportunities as hey tend to be sociable, and are more likely to join groups, more inclined to engage in conversations both inside and outside the classroom.

However, results have also concluded that a more extroverted personality may be better suited to classroom learning, especially reading skills. With this intention the study was conducted on 60 sampled students from high school. After the instructions finished, the mean scores of the two groups on this post-test was computed and a two-way NOVA was run to test the three hypotheses raise in this study.

The results indicated that extroverts outperform introverts in reading comprehension and used more strategies.The descriptive statistics also showed that the mean scores of the extroverted group were greater than that of introverted group. In addition, Tucker, Ramadan and Geneses (1976) found that extrovert students in a one-year late (grade 7) French immersion program performed better on tests of listening comprehension and oral production than did the introverts.

Also, they noticed that an outgoing personality seemed to be more important for students in a late immersion program than for those who had been exposed o a French immersion curriculum since kindergarten. Also, Strong (1983) studied thirteen Spanish-speaking kindergärtners a year.He found a correlation between the three personality traits of talkativeness, responsiveness and gregariousness, and success in learning a second language. In contrast to the above, a considerable group of studies have reported that even if extrovert students may be excelled in some aspects in L 2 acquisition, introverts do also surpass in some features of L 2 acquisition. Hurt (2002) stated that extrovert students tend to participate more in lassoer interactions, worry less about accuracy and have a tendency to take risks with their language, all of which are assets when it comes to communicative oral competence.In the other respect, extroversion may well have a role to play in the development of oral skills, but introversion may be of even more significance for the independent language learner, given its positive correlation with meta-cognitive skills and their link with autonomy.

Similar to that, Safari & Namesakes (2011) noticed that extroverts seem to take full advantage of language-use opportunities as they tend to be sociable, and re more likely to join groups, more inclined to engage in conversations both inside and outside the classroom.However, results have also concluded that a more introverted personality may be better suited to classroom learning, especially reading and writing skills. Risk takers; who are believed to be inherently extroverts, are more likely to take their existing language system to the limit.

Such learners are more likely to change and more resistant to visualization. Language proficiency is influenced directly by classroom participation which reflects, among other things, the contributing influences f risk-taking.In addition to that, Amazed, Kandahar, and Stakeholders (2014) presented a study that aimed at exploring the role of individual differences in terms of extroversion and introversion on writing ability of FEEL learners. An additional aim was to find out whether there is a significant effect of gender differences’ extroversion and introversion on their writing ability.

80 male and female students were selected based on Oxford Placement Test (OPT) scores and Essence Personality Questionnaire (PEPS) among low-intermediate participants in some English language institutes inRash, Iran. The study compared 40 extroverts and 40 introverts with their writing performance on a composition test. The collected data were analyzed by Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPAS). The main finding was extroversion vs.

. Introversion has no significant impact on writing ability. Moreover, there was no significant effect of gender differences’ extroverts/ introverts on their writing proficiency. The results revealed that both extroverts and introverts have the capability to be proficient in writing skill.Moreover, McIntyre and Charts (1996) stated for academic achievement in unreal, introversion is usually the more desirable end of the trait dimension.

But for language learning, the desirable end may be either extroversion or introversion, depending on the learning context and instructional methods. The current study of Alvin and Hosannas (2014) was aimed at investigating the relationship between academic Iranian FEEL learners’ extroversion/ introversion and their writing performance.The participants of the study were some 52 BAA learners majoring in English language literature in Uremia and Tabors state universities. The chosen sample comprised of both males ND females and as convenience sampling was utilized, all the participants took part in the study on a voluntary basis. The major instrument used in the study was the online version of Essence’s personality questionnaire, which was exerted as the means of determining the learners’ extroversion/ introversion.Furthermore, to gauge the learners’ writing performance, they were asked to write three types of essays (argumentative, narrative and descriptive). Through the final analysis of data, it was revealed that no significant correlation held between the participants’ personality types and heir writing performance in terms of all three modes referred to.

A statistically significant difference was, however, observed between the writing performance of male and female students. Overborne, Ronnie, and Waspishness (2015) claimed that the way we learn is very much affected by our personality.Practitioners have claimed that perception of personality type can help teachers to understand the reason why students perform differently in class activities (Will, 2000). Regarding the significant role of different personality types in language learning in general and in mastering LA writing in particular, the present study aimed at investigating the possible impact Of extrovert/introvert personality types Of Iranian FEEL learners on their writing performance in terms of its different subsets (I. E. , content, organization, language, mechanics, and vocabulary).

In so doing 50 writing samples, elicited from 50 extroverted and introverted university students were collected and rated by the researchers using Jacobs, Zincking, Warmouth, Heartfelt, and Huge)/s (1981) analytic scoring scale. A one-way multivariate analysis of variance was run. Analysis of the results revealed that introverts significantly outperformed extroverts in all subsets except organization. This may be due to some of the introverts’ personal characteristics that the extroverts lack, such as being careful, having more concentration in their solitude, and ability to generate much more ideas alone.Bali (2006) claims that there is a distinction of personality between every person, particularly extroversion and introversion, and it affects overall communication between learners. Such knowledge can be used to adapt language teaching methodology to the needs of learners in all kinds. The influence these personalities make when it comes to verbal tendencies and interactive behaviors must be seen.

The research showed that learners with extroversion and introversion tendencies differed in terms of the way they communicate in L 2.Extroverts having more social interaction and long sentences while introverts having shorter utterances. Both extroverts and introverts were very aware of the effect of their personality on their language behavior. Lastly, Burnham (1990) quoted a study conducted by Throne (1987) which examined the interaction between introverts and extroverts. The study axed and matched partners of extroverts and introverts in conversational situations. When introverts were paired with introverts, the conversation they engaged in focused on problem talk according to Throne.On the other hand, extroverts with extroverts showed a wide range of topics and more claims of common ground. Burnham (1990) concludes from this study and subsequent observations that extroverts talk more are more impulsive and take more risks with speech than introverts.

Introverts are more careful with speech and more focused on form: vocabulary, grammar and pronunciation. Synthesis The foregoing brief review of the literature has shown different facets of the correlation between introversion/ extroversion and second language acquisition.These studies proved the positive and negative sides of both personality types. Moreover, these related literatures seemed to agree that extrovert learners are very good in utilizing the language in social interactions which leads them to fully learn that language. On the other hand, introvert students are more focused on the language form such as vocabulary, grammar and pronunciation than using the language in oral interaction. Thus, these discoveries unraveled new questions regarding the real connection of introversion/extroversion and second language acquisition.