There exists one great interdependent system on earth. That system is the composed of all the living things on the earth and of those non-living components of the planet.
The living things interact with those non-living things and depend on them. Such non-living components of the earth are the atmosphere, oceans, freshwaters, rocks, and soils. This interaction refers to a community of life called the biosphere. The human kind is dependent on this so called community of life, with which the human kind itself is an essential part of it.
There are threats of extinction with regards to the diversity of life that had caught the attention of the public. Over the last 10,000 years, there is a widespread human influence on the ecosystem of the earth which had caused the extinction of many species.
Such threats is the increasing rate of deforestation, reef destruction, wetlands filling and other human acts which are destructive to the environment. It is said that the Earth is on an era of exceptional number of extinction of species. The main concern of the issue is about saving the diversity of life knowing the importance this biodiversity has in the environment.
Biological Diversity Conservation
During the Enlightened period in the late 18th century, the conservation of biology is at practice particularly in some places such as England and Scotland. The preservation of nature is given importance during the early 1800s. The efforts done by Darwin and other scientists in relating the species to their environments has become a way conserving the nature.
In the 19th century, the term conservation was used which refers to as management of the natural resources for economic purposes. There is a much progress in the conservation of the biodiversity that occurred during the 19th century in the Western Europe in places particularly the British Empire.
Starting with the thinking of Thoreau and the passing of the Forest Act of 1891 in the congress, the United States brings number of contributions in the conservation of the conservation of biology.
In addition, through the works of John Muir and the founding of the Sierra Club and of the New York Zoological Society in 1895, and the works done by Theodore Roosevelt establishing a series of national forests and preserves during the year 1901 to 1909, are really conspicuous contributions to the conservation of life done by the United States.
The development of concepts in connection to the establishment of preserves for particular species and the necessary studies for conservation in able to determine the suitability of locations specific for conservations were triggered by the New York Zoological Society during the early 20th century. The participation of the national and international agencies in the government in the conservation of biodiversity became more active during the early 1970s.
The United Nations made an act in the conservation of cultural and natural sites which are of importance to the mankind. In 1972, the General Conference of UNESCO adopted the programme. There are a total of 830 sites that are listed as conserved sites of cultural and natural importance to makind, 644 of which are cultural and 162 are natural. Through the national legislation, such as The Endangered Species Act which is passed back in 1966 and the National Environmental Policy Act in 1970 of the United States made USA the first country to pursue biological conservation.
This funded a research for threatened species and a large scale habitat protection for the habitats.
The Convention on Biological Diversity made most of the countries of the world to become dedicated to the conservation of the diversity of life in 1992. Biodiversity Action Plans then follows programmes raised by many countries which aim is to identify and conserve threatened species within their borders, and as well as the protection of the habitats connected to them.