Science Midterms

What is the difference between a renewable and a nonrenewable resource?
Nonrenewable resources take millions of years to replenish whereas renewable resources replenish within a relatively short time span.
What is tar sand?
Tar sand is oil mixed with sand.
What is oil shale?
Oil shale is a waxy oil mix with shale.
Why are tar sand and oil shale not economical ways of oil production.
The oil is too dificult to extract.
Coal, oil, and natural gas are all examples of:

a. artifacts
b. reneawble resources
c. fossil fuels

c. fossil fuels
soil-like, partially decayed plants
peat
as magma cools into a solid, liquids and metals collect near the top of the chamber. They can move with the rock. As the fluid cools, minerals separate and make veins.
hydrothermal solutions
As a large body of magma cools, heavy minerals crystallize early and settle to the bottom of the magma chamber.
mineral resource/igneous process
Formed when eroded heavy minerals settle quickly from moving water, while less dense particles remain suspended and keep moving to deposite together elsewhere.
placer deposites
a free energy source but not economical in a cloudy environment or in the dark
solar energy
this type of energy plant is expensive to build and cannot be close to a fault line. Scientists are also working on ways to deal with its waste.
nuclear energy
This energy source is also free, but some people complain of its noise pollution.
wind energy
Uses heat from underground steam/hot water. The problem with this heat source is the heat used to make energy is depleted within 10 to 15 years.
Geothermal energy
What is the problem with dams?
Over the years(300-500), the dam collects too much sedimentat the bottom and is no longer useful.
What is tidal power?
a dam in a narrow bay is built so that when the tides come in and out, the water rushes through gaps placed in the the dam to create hydroelectric power.
What is the problem with tidal power?
there aren’t many narrow bays.
Less than __% of Earth’s water is usable, fresh water. It is used in cooking, bathing, drinking, and growing food.
1%
Pointsource Pollution
pollution that comes from a known location/point
Run Off
when water runs over land, carrying polutants from several different locations
All of the following are true EXCEPT:
a.) life depends on the oxygen in Earth’s atmosphere

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b.) ozone in Earth’s atmosphere blocks UV rays

c.) Earth’s atmosphere does not support life

d.) Earth’s atmosphere provides temperature to support life

C.)
What is clear cut foresting?
Clear cut foresting is when people go and clear out every tree.
__ vehicle exhaust
__ Global warming
__ 200,000 people

a. __ people die yearly from air pollution

b. number 1 air pollution

c. caused when burned fossil fuels emit carbon dioxide in the air

*the #1 air pollutant is vehicle exauhst

*global warming is caused when burned fossil fuels emit carbon dioxide in the air

* 200,000 people die yearly from air pollution

True or False:
Quartz is known as the “super stone” because it is rarely seen in sedimentary rocks. It does not deteriorate quickly.
True
True or False:
Most METAMORPHIC changes occur at elevated temperatures and presures
True
igneous rocks can be classified in two ways: composition and _____.

a.) feeling
b.) texture
c.) size

b.) texture
Metamorphism
the changes in a mineral composition and texture of a rock subjected to high temperature and pressure within Earth
Nonfoliated Metamorphic Rock
metamorphic rock that does not exhibit a banded or layered appearance
Regional Metamorphism
metamorphism associated with large-scale mountain building processes
Basaltic Composition
a composistional group of igneous rocks indicating that the rock contains substantial dark silicate minerals and calcium-rich plagioclase feldspar
Sedimentary Rock
rock formed from weathered products of preexisting rocks that have been transported, deposited, compacted, and cemented.
weathering
the desintegration and decomposition of rock at or near Earth’s surface
lava
magma that reaches Earth’s surface
ultramafic
igneous rock composed mainly of iron and magnesium-rich minerals
metamorphic rock
rock formed by immense heat and pressure
porphyritic texture
an igneous texture consisting if large crystals embedded in a matrix of much smaller crystals
chemical sedimentary rock
a sedimentary rock consisting of material that was precipitated from water by either organic or inorganic means
cementation
solidification of sediments by the deposition of dissolved minerals in the tiny spaces between the sedimentary particles
Clastic sedimentary rock
a sedimentary rock made up of broken fragments of preexsisting rock
Compaction
the process by which sediments are squeezed together by the weight of overlapping materials, driving out water
hydrothermal solution
the hot, watery solution that escapes from a mass of magma during the later stages of crystallization; such solutions may alter surrounding rock
foliated metamorphic rock
a metamorphic rock with a texture that gives the rock a layered appearance
contact metamorphism
changes in a rock caused by the heat from a nearby magma body
system
any size group of interacting parts that form a complex whole
theory
a well tested and widely excepted view that explains certain observable facts
meteorology
the scientific study of the atmosphere and the atmospheric phenomena; the study of weather and climate
latitude
the distance north or south of the equator
core
the innermost layer of the earthlocated beneath the mantle
hypothesis
a tentative explanation that is tested to determine if it is valid
hydrosphere
the water portion of Earth
geosphere
layer of Earth under both the atmosphere and oceans – the core, mantle and crust
astronomy
the scientific study of the universe
longitude
the distance East or West of the Prime Meridian, measured in degrees
oceanography
the scientific study of the oceans and oceanic phenomena
biosphere
all life on Earth
crust
the thin, rocky outer layer of earth
atmosphere
the gaseous portion of the planet; the planet’s envelope of air
topographic map
a map that resents Earth’s surface in three dimensions
mantle
the 2,890-kilometer-thick layer of Earth located below the crust
conservation
the careful use of resources
runoff
water that flows over the land surface rather than seeping into the ground
fossil fuel
general term for any hydrocarbon that may be used as a fuel, including oil, and natural gas
recycling
the collecting and processing of used items so they can be made into new products
pointsource pollution
water pollutionthat comes from a known and specific location
compost
parlty decomposed organic material that is used as fertilizer
ore
a material from which a useful
mineral(s) can be mined at a profit
surface wave
a seismic wave that travels along the surface of the Earth
s wave
a seismic wave that shakes particles perpendicular to the direction the wave is traveling
Fault
a fracture in Earth along which movement has occured
p wave
Earthquake wave that pushes and pulls rocks in the direction of the wave (a compression wave)
focus
the point within Earth where an Earthquake originates
moment magnitude
a more precise measure of earthquake magnitude than the richter scale, which is derived from the amount of displacement that occurs along a fault zone and estimates the energy released by an earthquake
seismograph
an instrument that records seismic waves
elastic rebound
tendency for deformed rock along a fault to spring back to its original shape after an earthquake
seismogram
the record made by the seismograph
earthquake
the vibration of Earth due to a rapid release of energy
epicenter
the location on earth’s surface directly above the focus, or origin, of an earthquake
aftershock
a small earthquake that follows the main earthquake
seismic waves
vibrations that travel through Earth, carrying the energy released during an earthquake
Meteorology
the study of the atmosphere
What caused Earth to develop layers as it cooled?
differences in density
lines of lattitude describe positions __ or __ of the _______.
lines of latitude describe positions north or south of the equator.
What type of map would show the Earth in 3 dimensions?
topographic map
The model that explains the position of continents and the occurrence of earthquakes and volcanoes is calles:
plate tectonics