Secondary Literature

Ovid search database includes which of the following resources?

A. Medline
B. Cochrane library
C. Embase
D. A and C
E. All of the above

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E. All of the above

How can Ovid database be accessed freely by students outside of campus?

A. Ovid cannot be accessed outside of campus

B. Log in through portal using electronic resources



E. B and C only

B. Log in through portal using electronic resources

Which of the following is least likely to be considered a secondary resource

B. Medline
C. Cochrane Database
D. UptoDate
E. International Pharmacy Abstracts

D. UptoDate

During the indexing process, National Library of Medicine indexers add which of the following types of terms to MEDLINE records?

A. Medical Subject Headings
B. Author-supplied keywords
C. Synonyms for all subject terms
D. All of the above

A. Medical Subject Headings

Which of the following data bases contains the largest number of articles

A. Medline
C. UptoDate
D. International Pharmaceutical Abstracts


Where can you find how Pubmed has interpreted your search commands

A. PubMed help
B. Search details box in bottom right of screen
C. Medical Subject Heading database
D. Advanced search tab

B. Search details box in bottom right of screen

Performing a simple search for the term “eye” using Pubmed will retrieve records with which of the following terms?

A. eye, chin, forehead
B. eye (only)
C. eye, ears, nose and throat
D. eye, eyelids, cornea, iris and all other terms indented under eye in the MeSH hierarchy

D. eye, eyelids, cornea, iris and all other terms indented under eye in the MeSH hierarchy

Which is not an effective way of phrase searching using Pubmed?

A. using Boolean operators
B. using quotation marks
C. hyphenating
D. entering the phrase with a search tag

A. using Boolean operators

On a MEDLINE record, what does an asterisk after a MeSH term indicate?

A. The term is a provisional MeSH heading
B. More information is available at the bottom of the record
C. The term reflects a major topic of the article
D. The term has been truncated and variations of the term will be searched

C. The term reflects a major topic of the article

Which of the following PubMed search strategies will retrieve citations on the topic of allergies to eggs or peanuts?

A. allergies NOT peanuts AND eggs
B. allergies and (peanuts or eggs)
C. allergies AND peanuts OR eggs
D. allergies AND (peanuts OR eggs)

D. allergies AND (peanuts OR eggs)

T/F Secondary literature is literature that has filtered and synthesized the existing research

1. Databases composed of records
-Articles are indexed and/or abstracted
-Provide direction or directory to primary literature

2. Systematic reviews

T/F Cochrane review is secondary literature source

Secondary Literature – Databases
1. Medline

2. Embase
-International Pharmaceutical Abstracts


4. Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL)

5. A slew of databases provided by the National Library of Medicine

Database of abstracts comprised of Medline articles plus more than 5 million records not covered on Medline

tertiary sources


Pubmed Health or Medline Health

Natural Standard

Other Review articles

Cochrane Database of Systematic Review
International organization that prepares maintains, disseminates systematic reviews of controlled trials

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects

Not as rigorous as Cochrane

Summary of data available and discussion about results of the studies

Grey Literature
Does not make it into major publications: scientific meetings, seminars, poster presentation

Difference between Pubmed, Medline, and Ovid
Pubmed and Medline is free

Ovid costs a lot

EBM: Three components to clinical decision making (3 E’s)
1) Evidence-based medicine
2) Clinical Experience
3) Patient’s values & Expectations **Most important

5 Step EBM
1. Define-Clinical Question

2. Retrieve- Pertinent Information

3. Evaluate- Literature

4. Categorize- Quality of Evidence

5. Develop- Conclusion & Recommendation

RCT; comparative>placebo control

RCT > cohort > case control

Prospective, blind controlled trial comparison to the “gold standard”

cohort > case control > case series / report

RCT > cohort study > case control

Cost analysis
Economic analysis

P in Pico
Patient /population – Describe similar patient

Disease history
Primary complaint
Identifiable characteristic

I in Pico
Intervention or Exposure – What interventions

can be used in this situation or” what exposures can have an impact

Diagnostic test
Refer to specialist
Watchful waiting

C in Pico
Comparison – Alternative treatment or control that will be compared to the intervention

Treatment vs no treatment
Aspirin therapy compared to warfarin for stroke prophylaxis
Antiviral medication versus symptomatic treatment for influenza

O in Pico
Outcome – The desired effect of the

Individual patient
Population / society

T is for
Timing – At what time and/or for what duration is the intervention useful

Problems with defining a question
1. Too Complex

2. Inadequate Background

3. Lack of Time

Government sponsored National Library of Medicine

Limited free text articles

Search features user friendly; more irrelevant articles (MeSH terms

Privately owned interface


Search features more difficult to refine; more precise searching

Medical Subject Headings

Terms used for indexing Medline’s articles

Standardization / consistency with indexing

MeSH is heirarchical
-MeSH tree (16 branches)

Pubmed automatically explodes searches to
MeSH terms

T/F OVID does not explode MeSH terms. Must find MeSH heading to search MeSH terms

T/F On OVID, If you don’t go through mesh database, you are using textword
Any word found in the title, abstract, subject headings or mesh (if it is a mesh term) or other fields for a general subject search

Boolean operators
Combining search terms

( )

*Narrow* search and retrieve records containing all of the words it separates

*Broaden* search and retrieve records containing any of the words it separates

*Narrow* search and retrieve records that do not contain the term following it

( )
*Group words or phrases* when combining Boolean phrases and to show the order in which relationships should be considered: e.g., ‘(mouse or mice) and (gene or pseudogene)