Section 6

• What is the difference between the riparian doctrine and prior appropriation?
Riparian Doctrine: For the, ‘wet,’ eastern states. Ownership of land along water determines right to ‘reasonable’ use of water. During a shortage all water users decrease use. Live adjacent to water have rights to it.
Prior Appropriation Doctrine: ‘Dry’ western states. Date of first appropriation for ‘beneficial’ use gives seniority. During shortage water rights allocated in order of priority. Senior rights are fully satisfied before junior rights get water.
• Tributary groundwater in Colorado water law is groundwater from what type of aquifer?
Tributary Groundwater: Groundwater with direct connection to stream. Colorado water law the prior appropriation doctrine for surface water and tributary groundwater.
• What are some beneficial uses of water, as defined by Colorado water law?
Agricultural, municipal, domestic, commercial, and flood control. Newer beneficial use: fish and wildlife, nature centers, mined land reclamation, recreational flows, instream flows.
• Define return flow.
Surface and subsurface water that leaves the field following application of irrigation water. While irrigation return flows is a point source, they are expressly exempted
from permit requirements under the Clean Water Act.
• What is an interstate compact?
Agreements with other states regarding the amount of water each state may use.
• Name three types of federal reserve water rights.
?Tribal Reservations: Implied priority to water that was unappropriated when reservation was created.
?National Parks, Monuments
?Wild and Scenic Rivers Act
• What is the difference between point and nonpoint source pollution?
Point Source: Effluent discharge at a well-defined point such as a pipe or channel.
Non-Point Source: Pollutants distributed throughout the landscape and mobilized via storm water runoff or infiltration into groundwater.
• Of the two types of pollution listed above, which requires an NPDES permit? Which requires a TMDL plan?
NPDES Permit: Point Source Discharges.
TMDL Plan: Point and nonpoint sources.
• As water travels through an unlined ditch, what factors may cause water loss from the ditch?
Seepage losses
• What are advantages and disadvantages of constructing dams?
Dam Advantages: Hydropower, navigation, flood control, water supply, recreation
Dam Disadvantages: Habitat destruction, sediment blocking, changes the flow regime, temperature change, evaporation loss.
• How does a dam affect stream flow, sediment transport, and water quality?
Stream Flow: Changes timing of river flow, and can stop floods.
Sediment Transport: Blocks sediments.
Water Quality: Blocks fish passage.