Segregation prevents spread of infection, makes it easier

Segregation
of waste at the source is essential for safe and hygienic waste management. It
prevents spread of infection, makes it easier to choose among the options of
disposal. It can reduce the load on the incinerator and prevent injuries. The
containers used for storage must be rigid, leak proof, impervious to moisture,
sufficiently strong to prevent tearing or bursting under normal conditions of
use and handling. Sharps and any residual substances must be placed in
containers that are puncture-resistant.

The
label must be at most three inches by five inches and it shall be non-washable
and shall be prominently visible. Each label over the container must
specifically contain universal biohazard symbol or the words ‘medical waste’.
The collection and the transportation of biomedical waste should be carried out
in such a manner that there will no hazard to the human health and environment.
Specially designed vehicles are used for transporting such wastes. After
unloading the vehicle should be washed properly and disinfected. 

The
segregation part in the bio-hazard management is the vital step in the process
of disposal of various materials that have been used .The major usage of the different
colours of plastic containers allows for the quick deposit of bio-medical
waste. The different colours that are majorly used in these process are:

1.
Black-Metallic substances

2.
Red-Hazardous substances

3.
Yellow-Glass type devices

4.
Blue-Plastic

5.
White-materials of paper type

Household
waste should be separated daily into different dustbins for the different
categories of waste such as Wet & Dry Waste which should be disposed of
separately. One should also keep a dustbin for toxic wastes such as medicines,
batteries, dried paints, old bulbs and dried shoe polish. Wet wastes, which
consist of leftover foodstuff, vegetables, peels etc., should be put in a
compost pit and compost can be used as manure in the garden

Around
82 per cent of primary, 60 per cent of secondary and 54 per cent of tertiary
care health facilities were in the ‘RED’ category. Multivariate analysis
indicated that charts at the point of waste generation, availability of
designated person, appropriate containers and bags, availability of functional
needle destroyers, availability of personal protective gears, segregation of waste
at point of generation and log book maintenance were independently (OR-between
1.2-1.55; P <0.03 or less) associated with better BMWM system in the health facilities. This was true for both rural-urban and public or private health facilities