Semester 2

Weather

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Amount of water vapor in atmosphere

0-4%

Weather

Latent Heat

 

heat added or subracted to a substance without a change in temperature

  • absorbed or released during change in state

Weather

Humidity

 

amount of water vapor in the air

Weather

Saturation

 

air can only hold so much moisture at certain temperatures

  • can hold more water at higher temps

Weather

Specific Humidity

 

mass of water vapor/mass

Weather

Relative Humidity

ratio of the air’s actual water content to it’s potential water vapor capacity at a given temp

Weather

Temp to saturation

Tempurature goes up, so does saturation

Weather

2 things that can change relative humidity

Amount of H2O in the air or tempurature

Weather

Dew Point

temp to which air would have to be cooled to reach saturation

Weather

How to form a cloud

air must be saturated with H2O

Weather

Adiabatic Cooling

as air pressure decreases, temp decreases

  • air pressure decreases with altitude

Weather

4 Ways to lift air to higher altitude

  1. Orographic lifting-elevated terrain pushes air upward
  2. Frontal Wedging- warm air rises over cold air
  3. Convection- warm air rises
  4. Convergence- 2 air masses come togeter and rise

Weather

Ingredients for a cloud

 

Water, change in pressure, dust smoke or salt

Weather

Types of Clouds

  1. Stratus- sheets or layers, cover sky, no individuals
  2. Cirrus- high altitude, white thin whispy
  3. Cumulus- globular, rising, puffy, large or small

Weather

Preciptiation

small particles eventually condense further and heavy enough to fall

Weather

Wind

result of horozontal differences in air pressure

Weather

Air pressure

mass of the air includes a pressure, measured in milibars

Weather

3 affecting factors of winds

  1. Pressure gradient-bigger difference between high and low, stronger wind
  2. Coriolis effect-change in wind direction due to spin of earth (most storms counter clockwise)
  3. Friction-upper flow much faster than surface, wind travels faster over lakes

Weather

Cyclones

surface wind flow counter clockwise into low pressure center

Weather

Anticyclones

surface wind flows out of high pressure system

Weather

Local Winds

winds created on small scale by mountains or large water bodies

Weather

Doppler Radar predicts:

  1. reflectivity (density)
  2. velocity
  3. precipitation

Weather

Lakes in summer and winter

absorb heat during summer which keeps areas cooler in summer and warmer in winter

Weather

Lake Effect Snow

cold, dry air passes over warm, open lake and absorbs moisture.

Weather

Warm front

warm air rises over cold air. stratus and cirrus clouds. moderate precipitaion. affects large area

Weather

Cold Front

 

cold air runs into warm. forms cumulus clouds. heavy precipitation. small area

Weather

Westerly Winter Storm

blasts of cold air from Canada and Dakotas. moves fast. 1-3 in of snow

Weather

Mid Latitude Cyclone System

severe storm lasting days. 20 in of snow. low pressure forms in central US. air spins up. upper air supports low pressure

Weather

Severity of storm depends on:

 

Upper air support, moisture content, temp difference

Weather

Thunderstorms

warm humid air is lifted up by convection or a cold front

Weather

Tornadoes

occur in spring in central US. northern wind and souther wind collide. late afternoon

Weather

Hurricanes

biggest storm in world. energy derived from very late summer water. June-Oct.

Weather

More energy to boil or melt?

Boil

Climate

Sources of greenhouse gases

  1. CO2- burning fossil fuels
  2. CH4- cows and landfills, decomposition
  3. N20 and CFC- human generated pollution
  4. H2O- non human evaporation, human industry

Climate

How does CO2 leave the atmosphere?

taken out by plants, algae, and ocean

Climate

Evidence of Global Warming (Direct)

polar ice has thinned. winter is 2 weeks shorter in Alaska. shifted migratory habits. hottest years since 1980.

Climate

Effect Global Climate

  1. distance from the sun, tilt, and spin not consistant
  2. ocean currents can radically effect climate
  3. salinity of ocean
  4. mass on earth is not equally distrubuted
  5. ice caps reflect energy into space

Climate

Possible Effects of Global Warming

  1. Global temp increase (Ice age in +/-5 shift)
  2. increased precipitation in winter
  3. longer severe droughts
  4. Higher sea levels
  5. Biome shift
  6. increase diseases, malaria, typhoidect
  7. heat waves

Climate

Possible Good Things

  1. CO2 is a plant growth hormone
  2. higher temp= higher crop production
  3. heat waves are deadly but so is cold
  4. sulfates are released, reflect sunlight which cools the earth

Climate

Kyoto 1997

159 countries meet to discuss global warming. was agreed to cut CO2 emissions by 8%. never enforced

Climate

Carbon Sinks

credit for having lots of forrests

Climate

Cap and Trade

Limit CO2 emissions. Give each person credits they can use to pollute. allow credits to be bought and traded. credit given for investing in clean energy in developing nations

Climate

El Nino

warm west wind that hits Peru around Christmas. 3-7 years. poor fishing. flooding

Climate

US effects of El Nino

Very wet and cool in southern states, warmer in northern states

Climate

wisconsin effect of El Nino

Warmer winter, possible more intense blizzards and more snow

Climate

major effect of 1982-1983 El Nino

8 billion in damages with no warning. Massive monitoring system put in place

Climate

La Nina

Return to normal pattern. Exaggerated normal conditions

Evolution

evidence of evolution

All life runs on same genetic system. All life shares basic cell structrure.

evolution

ontogeny vs phylogeny

Development of organism from contraception to birth vs organisms evolutionary history

Evolutions 

two things needed to evolve

Way to evolve and a reason to evolve

Evolution

Jean Baptiste Lamarack

Organisms changed based on use. Passed to next generation

Evolution

aquired inheritance

Characteristics are acquired by parents and then passed to children

Evolution

 charles lyell

Contribution-earth must be old

evolution

parapatric

Not quite fully seperate. Horses and donkeys

Evolution

sympatric

Share an area but separated by functions. Polar and grizzly bears, fireflies and birds

Evolution

allopatric

Geographic separation. madagascar and australia

Evolution

fitness

 

Relative reproductive success of a characteristic

Evolution

2 theories on African migration

Left Africa and spread north or left at different times

Water

functions of the water cycle

Transport and clean water

Water

most of usable water

Underground

Water

permiability

Water flows through different aquifers at different rates

evolution

aquiclude

Impermeable to water. Clay or shale

Evolution

aquitard

Semi permeable to water

Water

unconfined aquifers

Open to recharge from above

Water

confined aquifer

Aquifer underneath an aquiclude

Water

recharge area

Are where water is allowed to infiltrate the water table

Water

function of the water table

Clean and store water

Water

absorbtion factors

Slope of surface, vegitation, surface material, rainfall intensity

Water

effluent vs influent

water table flows into stream vs stream flows into water table

Water

hardwater

Minerals dissolved into water

Water

salt water intrusion 

Freach water is removed and salt water flows into aquifer

Water

organic waste

Contamination from poorly managed septic tanks or land fills

Water

coloform bacteria

Present in human digestive system.

Geology

how old is earth

4.5 billion years