Semester 2

WeatherAmount of water vapor in atmosphere
WeatherLatent Heat 
heat added or subracted to a substance without a change in temperature

  • absorbed or released during change in state

amount of water vapor in the air
air can only hold so much moisture at certain temperatures

  • can hold more water at higher temps

WeatherSpecific Humidity 
mass of water vapor/mass
WeatherRelative Humidity
ratio of the air’s actual water content to it’s potential water vapor capacity at a given temp
WeatherTemp to saturation
Tempurature goes up, so does saturation
Weather2 things that can change relative humidity
Amount of H2O in the air or tempurature
WeatherDew Point
temp to which air would have to be cooled to reach saturation
WeatherHow to form a cloud
air must be saturated with H2O
WeatherAdiabatic Cooling
as air pressure decreases, temp decreases

  • air pressure decreases with altitude

Weather4 Ways to lift air to higher altitude

  1. Orographic lifting-elevated terrain pushes air upward
  2. Frontal Wedging- warm air rises over cold air
  3. Convection- warm air rises
  4. Convergence- 2 air masses come togeter and rise

WeatherIngredients for a cloud 
Water, change in pressure, dust smoke or salt
WeatherTypes of Clouds

  1. Stratus- sheets or layers, cover sky, no individuals
  2. Cirrus- high altitude, white thin whispy
  3. Cumulus- globular, rising, puffy, large or small

small particles eventually condense further and heavy enough to fall
result of horozontal differences in air pressure
WeatherAir pressure
mass of the air includes a pressure, measured in milibars
Weather3 affecting factors of winds

  1. Pressure gradient-bigger difference between high and low, stronger wind
  2. Coriolis effect-change in wind direction due to spin of earth (most storms counter clockwise)
  3. Friction-upper flow much faster than surface, wind travels faster over lakes

surface wind flow counter clockwise into low pressure center
surface wind flows out of high pressure system
WeatherLocal Winds
winds created on small scale by mountains or large water bodies
WeatherDoppler Radar predicts:

  1. reflectivity (density)
  2. velocity
  3. precipitation

WeatherLakes in summer and winter
absorb heat during summer which keeps areas cooler in summer and warmer in winter
WeatherLake Effect Snow
cold, dry air passes over warm, open lake and absorbs moisture.
WeatherWarm front
warm air rises over cold air.

stratus and cirrus clouds. moderate precipitaion. affects large area

WeatherCold Front 
cold air runs into warm. forms cumulus clouds. heavy precipitation. small area
WeatherWesterly Winter Storm
blasts of cold air from Canada and Dakotas.

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moves fast. 1-3 in of snow

WeatherMid Latitude Cyclone System
severe storm lasting days. 20 in of snow. low pressure forms in central US. air spins up. upper air supports low pressure
WeatherSeverity of storm depends on: 
Upper air support, moisture content, temp difference
warm humid air is lifted up by convection or a cold front
occur in spring in central US. northern wind and souther wind collide. late afternoon
biggest storm in world.

energy derived from very late summer water. June-Oct.

WeatherMore energy to boil or melt?
ClimateSources of greenhouse gases

  1. CO2- burning fossil fuels
  2. CH4- cows and landfills, decomposition
  3. N20 and CFC- human generated pollution
  4. H2O- non human evaporation, human industry

ClimateHow does CO2 leave the atmosphere?
taken out by plants, algae, and ocean
ClimateEvidence of Global Warming (Direct)
polar ice has thinned. winter is 2 weeks shorter in Alaska. shifted migratory habits. hottest years since 1980.
ClimateEffect Global Climate

  1. distance from the sun, tilt, and spin not consistant
  2. ocean currents can radically effect climate
  3. salinity of ocean
  4. mass on earth is not equally distrubuted
  5. ice caps reflect energy into space

ClimatePossible Effects of Global Warming

  1. Global temp increase (Ice age in +/-5 shift)
  2. increased precipitation in winter
  3. longer severe droughts
  4. Higher sea levels
  5. Biome shift
  6. increase diseases, malaria, typhoidect
  7. heat waves

ClimatePossible Good Things

  1. CO2 is a plant growth hormone
  2. higher temp= higher crop production
  3. heat waves are deadly but so is cold
  4. sulfates are released, reflect sunlight which cools the earth

ClimateKyoto 1997
159 countries meet to discuss global warming. was agreed to cut CO2 emissions by 8%.

never enforced

ClimateCarbon Sinks
credit for having lots of forrests
ClimateCap and Trade
Limit CO2 emissions. Give each person credits they can use to pollute. allow credits to be bought and traded. credit given for investing in clean energy in developing nations
ClimateEl Nino
warm west wind that hits Peru around Christmas. 3-7 years.

poor fishing. flooding

ClimateUS effects of El Nino
Very wet and cool in southern states, warmer in northern states
Climatewisconsin effect of El Nino
Warmer winter, possible more intense blizzards and more snow
Climatemajor effect of 1982-1983 El Nino
8 billion in damages with no warning. Massive monitoring system put in place
ClimateLa Nina
Return to normal pattern. Exaggerated normal conditions
Evolutionevidence of evolution
All life runs on same genetic system. All life shares basic cell structrure.
evolutionontogeny vs phylogeny
Development of organism from contraception to birth vs organisms evolutionary history
Evolutions two things needed to evolve
Way to evolve and a reason to evolve
EvolutionJean Baptiste Lamarack
Organisms changed based on use. Passed to next generation
Evolutionaquired inheritance
Characteristics are acquired by parents and then passed to children
Evolution charles lyell
Contribution-earth must be old
Not quite fully seperate.

Horses and donkeys

Share an area but separated by functions. Polar and grizzly bears, fireflies and birds
Geographic separation. madagascar and australia
Relative reproductive success of a characteristic
Evolution2 theories on African migration
Left Africa and spread north or left at different times
Waterfunctions of the water cycle
Transport and clean water
Watermost of usable water
Water flows through different aquifers at different rates
Impermeable to water. Clay or shale
Semi permeable to water
Waterunconfined aquifers
Open to recharge from above
Waterconfined aquifer
Aquifer underneath an aquiclude
Waterrecharge area
Are where water is allowed to infiltrate the water table
Waterfunction of the water table
Clean and store water
Waterabsorbtion factors
Slope of surface, vegitation, surface material, rainfall intensity
Watereffluent vs influent
water table flows into stream vs stream flows into water table
Minerals dissolved into water
Watersalt water intrusion 
Freach water is removed and salt water flows into aquifer
Waterorganic waste
Contamination from poorly managed septic tanks or land fills
Watercoloform bacteria
Present in human digestive system.
Geologyhow old is earth
4.5 billion years