As parents we have watched our children grow and develop in the areas of height and weight, remembered when they first crawled, walked, and even spoke their first words. During these early school years there are many changes in their physical, cognitive, language, and social/emotional development. Everything that a three-year old does during their day teaches them something about their world. They learn through exploration and trial and error and their minds are like little sponges. They learn by using all of their five senses.
In the physical domain the developmental milestones that three year olds are mastering can be found in using their gross and fine motor skills. They can walk up and down stairs, one foot on each step, run easily, climbs well, and feeds themselves with some spilling. They also can build a tower of 4-5 blocks, pedal a tricycle, throw a ball overhead, and dress themselves with help (Powell, J. And Smith, C. A. , 1994). In contrast these children will be working on mastering feeding themselves with little spilling, building a tower of 7-9 blocks, walking downstairs using a handrail and alternating feet.
In this domain the developmental theorist Pigged states that children increase in playing and pretending in this pre-operational stage of development. For example their play is demonstrated by the idea of checkers being snacks, pieces of paper being plates, and a box being a table. Their observations of symbols exemplifies the idea of play with the absence Of the actual objects involved. Another theorist named Erickson called this stage of psychological development initiative versus guilt.
In this stage the child learns to do things independently. As the child succeeds at different tasks, he will start to take initiative to try more new things. If he doesn’t experience success, he will start to feel that something is wrong with him and feel guilty or not being successful (2009). One of my students who has down syndrome tried to climb up a piece of playground equipment but since the playground equipment was not appropriate for her size wanted to tell her not to climb up because of safety reasons.
I ended up helping her by verbally telling her and physically helping her climb up. She accomplished this and she was very excited. According to Viscosity, young children need to have the desired activity demonstrated in order to facilitate their understanding. By allowing her freedom to do the activity that she wanted it not only gave her the reactive to use her physical skills but it helped her develop confidence and be a success.
In the cognitive/language domain the developmental milestones that three year olds should be mastering are as follows: pays attention for about 3 minutes, speaks in complete sentences of three to five words, matches pictures to objects, begins to recognize cause-effect relationships, knows what is food and what is not food, screws and unscrews jar lids or turns door handles, names of friends, follows instructions with 2 or 3 steps, and talks well enough for strangers to understand most of the time (Centers or Disease Control and Prevention, 2014).
In contrast what they will be working on mastering will be naming some colors and numbers, using scissors, drawing a person with 2 to 4 body parts, telling you what he/she thinks is going to happen next in a book. In the language domain they will be trying to say the first and last name, sing songs or say a poem from memory like the “Wheels on the Bus”, and work on telling stories (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2014). In this domain Pigged stated that the child who is still in the operational stage can’t conceptualize abstractly and needs incorrect physical situations.
They can’t mentally manipulate information. The child is able to form stable concepts as well as magical beliefs and their thinking is still egocentric, which means that the child has difficulty seeing the viewpoint of others. Pigged split this stage into the symbolic and intuitive thought substance. In the symbolic function stage children are able to understand, represent, remember, and picture objects in their mind without having the object in front of them. Viscosity stated that children learn cognitive tasks through their interactions with older peers and adults.
Not only do younger children watch and imitate older people or peers as they complete tasks, but these older guides also help younger children accomplish tasks they couldn’t accomplish on their own. He calls this the zone of proximal development which he describes what children can do alone and what they can do with assistance. Another theorist named Bandeau coined the term observational learning which means people learn appropriate social behaviors by observing and modeling others. This type of learning is most effective during childhood.
Viscosity believed that the important part of the cognitive development is language. He observed that very young children tended to talk out loud as they problem-solved and tried to learn a new mental task. He believed that the external dialogue helped the child guide themselves through tasks. Language also played a central role in mental development and was a mechanism for thinking. An example in my classroom would be when one of my students needed help putting a floor puzzle together. I verbally told her where to put the puzzle piece and showed her how it went to together.
She was successful putting it together with my help but without it she wouldn’t have been able to accomplish the task. The last domain that we will discuss is the social-emotional and its’ developmental milestones. At this point children begin to move away from parallel play to group or interactive play where they cooperate and play with others. They will develop essential skills such as taking turns in games, shows interest in trying new things, shows a range of emotions, shows affection for others on his own, separates easily from mom and dad, and dresses and undresses self (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2014).
In contrast three year olds will be working on mastering playing with other children rather than by homeless, enjoying doing new things, cooperating with other children, and being more creative with make-believe. John Bowl, a psychoanalyst believed that mental health and behavioral problems could be attributed to early childhood. His theory of attachment suggested that children come into the world biologically pre-programmed to form attachments with others, because it will help them survive (McLeod, 2007).
His main points were that a child has an innate need to attach to one main attachment figure and a child should receive the continuous care of this single most important attachment Geiger for approximately the first two years of life. Bowl (1951) claimed that mothering is almost useless if delayed until after and a half to three years. If this attachment figure is disrupted during this two year period the child will suffer irreversible long-term consequences. This risk continues until the age of five years old. The consequences of this disruption can include depression, increased aggression, reduced intelligence, and delinquency.
In the classroom where I work see this constantly with these three year olds. They are in the custody of the state or they are living with grandparents and hey have none to love them and bond with. So as children are learning to separate from their parents these children at this age and because of their situation are looking to bond with an adult or even a stranger to make up for their loss. Some of the behavior problems that these children may exhibit because of this failing to bond can be curbed by just holding the child and giving them the attention that they are craving especially when they are having a hard time.
We have talked about the four major domains and their developmental milestones along with the perspectives Of the developmental heritors and now we will focus on how learning in one domain impacts learning in another domain. Preschool years are prime for motor skill development. Children who have opportunities and adult support to engage in running, jumping, skipping and hopping are better equipped to acquire more complex motor skills like riding a two wheel bike or walking on a balance beam.
Later on in life, children whose early gross and fine motor skills were severely limited may struggle to be physically competent which in turn may cause them not to attempt to participate in sports or any type of personal fitness activities later in life. This experience would parallel Erik Erosion’s initiative versus guilt psychological developmental stage. In this stage as the child succeeds in different tasks he will take initiative to try more new things but not in this case since the child didn’t receive the support of or have the physical capabilities to develop their gross and fine motor skills.
Another example of domain interrelatedness would be a child’s social experiences with other children during the preschool years. In these years they help the child to develop social skills and confidence that enable the child to make friends. These experiences help to enhance the child’s social competence. If these children fail to develop any type of social skills and they are rejected by their peers they are at a significant risk Of not finishing school, becoming a criminal, or experiencing some form of mental health problem as an adult.
Level Viscosity was concerned with how children interacted with their society and culture. For Viscosity he believed that, “children learn through conversations with adults as the need to communicate with them presses the child to seek for the adult meanings of things that are said” (Mason, 2006, p. 16). So according to Viscosity learning becomes a result of mature thinking and behavior is due to socio-cultural experiences. A positive example of this would be for a collaborative process of learning between the children and teacher in the social events being held in the classroom.
Children’s language skills can affect their ability to establish social relationships with adults and other children, just as their skill in social interaction can support or delay their language development. Having a physical disability can also be detrimental to language development. A child who is in a wheelchair might be withdrawn cause of their condition therefore they might not talk or if they do it might be a whisper. They won’t engage in conversations with other students so this impacts their social skills and their mental health. Biology can play a role in impacting a child’s development.
Genes are a biological risk factor that can’t be changed. Even though a child’s genetic background can predispose them to certain diseases or disorders, early interventions can improve the outcome these risks factors may have on their physical development. The environment can either indirectly or directly affect a child’s growth. Drinking alcohol, mooing while pregnant, malnutrition and recreational drugs can affect the growth of a fetus and cause birth defects along with affecting the child’s cognitive growth in the later developmental stages.
Since the child might be born addicted to drugs or have fetal alcohol syndrome the mother might not want to have anything to do with the child therefore not developing a bond with the child according to the developmental theorist John Bowl. Children construct for themselves their own native language through the cognitive process of trial and error with physical events like walking, pulling, or dancing. If a student has a language impairment then this could affect them physically because since they can’t communicate properly they might not be able to ask another student to play with them.
Therefore affecting not only the colonization but they might become despondent and not participate in any physical activities with other students. The cognitive development of three year olds is more than learning the alphabet or how to count. It is a learning process that is about absorbing information. It’s about asking questions, processing and understanding. If there is a language impairment then the hill might not be able to ask many questions on a variety of subjects. So this would definitely impair the child cognitively because they can’t get the answers to their questions or express their point of view.
They should be able to say and understand at least 300 words. The more vocabulary they have and can articulate the more they learn about their environment. This builds up their self confidence and independence. In Abraham Mason’s Hierarchy of Needs his fourth need which is esteem refers to what other people think of you and the other is based on what you think of yourself. So if you don’t have NY self confidence or feel like you have any independence then you won’t be able to reach what he calls self actualization which is a worthy goal but only 2% of people actually reach this level.
In the last domain of social/emotional development this is how children start to understand who they are, what they are feeling, and what they expect to receive from others. A child who has good social-emotional attributes will have self-confidence, empathy, and the ability to form and develop meaningful relationships. The child will also have a sense of importance and value to those around her. All of these domains re affected by how a child feels about herself and how the child is able to express their emotions and ideas.
An American psychiatrist named Rudolf Deriders believed that all misbehaver was a result of feeling isolated, causing a child to attempt to fit in through one of four ways with attention. A child retaliates against the people who are not giving her the positive response she craves and avoidance is the worst of all so the child withdraws altogether, not showing any response to anything going on around her (2009). So here is an example of what can happen if the child’s mental health is not intact. We will now focus on the child’s development on learning and the learning environment.
For a developing three year old a colorful room would stimulate their physical development to explore their environment. The could play with blocks, paint and have a place to sit down and rest if they wanted. For the developmental theorist Erickson this classroom would represent an opportunity for the preschooler to practice their independence in making their own choices. The physical layout of the room would have to be open making it handicap accessible for someone in a wheelchair. I would have the shelves lined with age appropriate books at a level that the children could reach.
When the students came into the room I would have low level scabies for the students to put their coats and backpacks in. This would help to teach them to be organized, neat, and being responsible for their personal items. The flooring would be soft rubber because children at this age like to jump around and if they fell it would be cushioned. There would be different stations set up like a sensory table and plenty of opportunity for the children to expand their social skills and vocabulary. I would have a mat and beam here the children could roll around and practice walking on the beam to improve their balance.
The classroom would also be a safe environment where the children could learn appropriate behaviors from their teachers and classmates. The lessons that would be provided would be creative drawing activities such as the children drawing themselves through the use of multicultural people color crayons. Then I would have the students explain what makes them special. This would be about a 30 minute activity. I would also have the children make their own ice cream sundae and would give them different toppings from around the world. We would repeat greetings from different languages.
Again this would be a 30 minute activity. Another activity that I would use would be to teach how to use words to work things out. This would help teach the children to negotiate conflicts by using words. Again this would help them to build up their vocabulary skills. Would use a puppet show to dramatist a story that was recently read in class. The lesson will help teach children to respect feelings and belongings of other children. The materials that would use would be to have an area with a sand box for sensory activities and social skills building.
Wood building blocks and Logos. A assist area for children to play in the kitchen and dress up for pretend play. Dolls for the girls and a train set that they have to put together to practice using social skills. I would have a reading area with bean bags and a couch. I would put toys in a plastic container so that the children could easily open it and pick them up. It is also easier to sanitize the toys. The children would come in from the bus and they would hang up their bags and wash their hands. This is teaching them good hygiene habits.
After eating we would do circle time where we would practice saying the alphabet, colors, shapes, and mounting. We would then stand up and do singing and some movement exercises to different learning CDC. The children would get to play and make a choice before we started work at the different centers. There would be a writing center, art center and a center where they could practice using their fine motor skills like playing with playground. The children would rotate to other centers when they finished. We would then have a snack practicing hand washing techniques before eating.
Then the day would end with coming back to circle and reading a Story followed by a song and asking the students what they did in school today. Then have them line up at the door when their name is called to go home. For Pigged cognitive development consists of constant effort to adapt to the environment in terms of assimilation and accommodation. Learning materials and activities should involve the appropriate level of motor or mental operations for a child of a given age; avoiding asking children to perform tasks that are beyond their current cognitive capabilities.
I would use teaching methods that actively involve children and present challenges (Learning Theories, n. D. ). Viscosity s zone of proximal development uses social interaction with a more knowledgeable arson to move development forward. So a person, such as a tether provides assistance to the students; the student is able to complete the task. His theory promotes belief and active teaching. Teachers should be explaining, modeling and using guided practice in their classroom. By modeling what they want their students to do, the children will be better able to work through their tasks.
Viscosity states that learning can occur through play, formal instruction, or work between the child and the teacher. Teachers must actively assist and promote the growth of their students, so that they can evolve the skills they need to fully participate in society (B. Blake & T. Pope, 2008). According to Erikson the children in this stage are starting to make decisions and carry them out primarily through play activities. They should have stories and songs that stimulate the imagination. They must have room to exercise their expression of imagination, such as playing with various, simple materials, and role playing.
Using real life activities like chopping vegetables and serving food can help them participate in the community around them. There would also be child-directed activities where the child hoses the activity and repeats it as often as they want. This is an opportunity to take initiative and responsibility for the child. The teacher has to be careful not to discourage the child by inducing shame or guilt (S. Earmark, 2002). Theorist Bandanna’s research focused primarily on observational learning called imitation or modeling. He believed that once someone witnessed another’s behavior, they might be inclined to adopt this behavior as their own.
So if you have a classroom that has a student who has aggression issues and who takes it out on other kids this might incite other dents to do the same. So the environment in the classroom along with the classroom management by the teacher has to be one which provides a safe learning environment. The teacher also has to provide a means of teaching and helping children communicate their needs so they don’t get to the point of frustration where they strike out and hurt someone (Grace, 2012). Next we will look at the health, safety, and nutrition considerations for three year olds.
At this age the child should have a healthy attitude toward eating. By this age the child shouldn’t be using eating or non eating as an act of defiance or infusing food with love and affection. The child should view eating as a natural response to hunger and use meals as a pleasant social experience. Less normal for this age group to eat a certain food one day and the next day not want it. It’s a normal behavior and it’s best to not fight it or get mad at the child. It is best to let the child eat other things off their plate and encourage the child to try new foods.
This is the period of time that healthy snacking and healthy habits get reinforced and/or established (American Academy of Pediatrics, 2012). When it comes to vaccines for three year olds people need o remember that diseases that vaccines prevent can be very dangerous. It can even kill a child. Giving vaccines greatly reduces the risk of infection by working with the body natural defenses to safely develop immunity to disease. At three years of age most children have gotten most of their shots. The flu vaccine is recommended once a year for children who are 6 months and older.
They will ARQ Eire two doses if this is their first time receiving the vaccine. When children are taken to the doctor you can expect the doctor to check their weight and measure the child’s growth. The doctor will also take heir blood pressure and check their heart and breathing. If they have missed any immunization they will be given. They will also be given a tuberculosis test to see if they have any risk factors. Since three year olds are very active scrapes and bruises are common. Questions regarding toilet training, discipline or sibling rivalry are Common.
This is also a good time to have their hearing and language assessed. Children are a gift and it’s our responsibility to raise them up safe and sound. In regards to safety concerns for three year olds since they are becoming more independent and they spend more time in he outside world the child and parents need to be aware of ways to stay safe. It’s a good idea to tell the child not to chase a ball or play in the sheet because they could get hit my a vehicle. At school children should wear a helmet when riding a tricycle on the school grounds. Playground queue moment should be checked for loose parts or sharp edges.
The playground equipment should be age appropriated with shade and offer the children a variety of choices to choose from. When the children are outside they should always have supervision at all times. Safety should be a number one priority at all mimes. At this age these children are very active and even in a moment of distraction it can result in an injury’ or even a death. Its better to be safe than sorry. In the last segment of this portrait of an early childhood learner we will look at variations to the typical development for three year olds and how they relate to cultural and socioeconomic differences.
Children are central to sustainable development but because of poor health, under nutrition, and poor learning environments that fail to provide adequate responsive stimulation and nurture, too many children around the world are not evolving their learning capacities, entering school late, performing poorly at school and not achieving their full potential. In 201 2, over 200 million children under the age of five years of age worldwide did not receive the appropriate care and support to become physically healthy, mentally alert and emotionally secure.
The effects reach far beyond the individual lives Of children and affect families, communities and the development of entire nations (Eunice, 2014). At no other time in a person’s life do they develop as intensely as they do during the first three years of life. They are critical and influence the child for life. Encouraging children to play and explore helps them to learn and develop socially, emotionally, intellectually and physically. It plays an important role in the cognitive development and it shouldn’t be overlooked.
When you have a culture that doesn’t value children or children who are raised in abject poverty it reduces their chances to play and grow up and be a child. These children may end up being put in jails when they get older, sold by their parents into the sex slave trade to support the family, or end up on the streets because they have none to take care of them. They are such unfortunates because every child deserves the right to grow up in a healthy, safe environment so that they can accomplish what they were brought into this world for.