Solid and Hazardous Waste

hazardous waste

threatens human health or the environment because it is toxic, chemically active, corrosive, or flammable


any discarded solid or liquid material that is toxic, ignitable, corrosive, or reactive enough to explode or release toxic fumes


Ex: industrial solvents, hospital medical waste, and car batteries

municipal solid waste

aka garbage or trash


produced directly by homes and workplaces


Ex: paper, food scraps, and cans

industrial solid waste
produced indirectly by mines, facteries, and refineries that supply people with goods and services
electronic waste

consists of discarded TV sets, cell phones, and other anodic devices


source of tocic and hazardous wastes


family of more than 75 similar chlorinated hydrocarbon compounds


form as unwanted by-products in combustion of chlorine compounds in a number of industrial processes

waste management

a high-loss approach that manages these losses in ways that reduce environmental harm.


It mixes losses and then transfers them from one part of the environment to another.

integrated waste management
a variety of strategies for both waste reduction and waste management
waste reduction

low-waste approach


views solid losses as potential resources that should not be produced


we should be reusing, recycling, or composting

consume less and live a simpler life by practicing voluntary simplicity
rely more on items that can be employed over and over instead of on throwaway items
separate andconvert paper, glass, and other items and buy products made from pre-owned materials
closed loop recycling
materials are converted into new products of the same type
secondary recycling
materials are converted into different products
materials-recovery facilities

machines or workers separate the mixed waste to recover valuable materials for sale to manufacture as raw materials


the remaining combustible wastes are recycled or burned to produce steam or electricity to run the plant or to sell to nearby industries or homes


we copy nature to secycle biodegradable organic wastes we produce


the organic material produced can be added to soil to supply plant nutrients, slow soil erosion, retain water, and improve crop yields

waste-to-energy incinerators
boil water to make steam for heating water or space, or for producting electricity
open dumps
fields or holes in the ground where garbage is deposited and sometimes covered with soil
sanitary landfills
solid wastes are spread out in thin layers, compacted, and covered daily with a fresh layer of clay or plastic foam, which helps keeps the material dry and reduces leakage of contaminated water
rainwater contaminated as it percolates through solid waste
superfund hazardous waste sites
1/5 of this are former municipal landfills
Resource Conservation and Recovery Act

regulates legally defined hazardous waste produced in the US


prevents unsafe and illegal disposal of hazardous wastes on land

cradle-to-grave system
permit holders must use __________ to keep track of waste they transfer from a point of generation to an aproved offsite disposal or hazardous waste treatment system and submit proof of this to EPA