SOLUTION representing UC Denver, I am working on

Advanced Heat Transfer Term Project
Student Id: 108947812
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HEAT TRANSFER PROJECT – Solution for Heat transfer in Hyperloop Pod
Table of contents
• Abstract
• Introduction
• Current System
o Components
o Operation
o Calculation
• Alternate solutions
• Increasing Radiative Heat Transfer
• Increasing Convective Heat Transfer
• References
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This report contains current method of cooling used in Hyperloop Pod with calculation and
after that some other methods to increase heat transfer rate is discussed. Focus is to enhance
radiative heat transfer as mostly it is taken for granted in system designs but can play major
role. Many Article and papers are reviewed for this as radiative heat transfer can also contribute
towards convective heat transfer also. Each method is reviewed, and conclusion is it can used
or not in pod with what changes and to what length.

SpaceX Hyperloop pod Competition requires each Team to Design and build a pod which is
within competition parameters and passes all preliminary as well as final design testing. So as
a member of Hyper Lynx team, representing UC Denver, I am working on designing the
Hyperloop pod for the competition. The original design intent was to avoid using a cooling
system and keep the design as simple as possible. But it is necessary for some of the
Only few components generate heat that must be dissipated. Selected components were
researched to determine the estimated temperature rise and any cooling requirement.
The low voltage battery, Raspberry Pi, and Arduino components do not require cooling. Each
was vacuum tested to 0.14psi (7torr) at SpaceX in 2016, and no adverse heat rise was recorded.
The high voltage battery manufacturer has confirmed that cooling is unnecessary for the
batteries. The motor and motor controller both explicitly require cooling. We assume the nearvacuum
conditions provide no effective air convection.
As per the manufacturer, the EMRAX 208 liquid-cooled motor requires 7L/min of coolant flow
during operation, at a nominal pressure of 8.7psi (0.6bar). The maximum pressure is
200kPa. The listed motor efficiency is 92-98%. For heat generation calculations, a 90%
efficiency was assumed, resulting in 8kW of maximum heat generation. The motor is not likely
to spend the entire flight at maximum power, so these numbers are conservative. The Unitek
BAMOCAR-D3 motor controller lists a maximum flow of 12L/min, a maximum pressure of
130kPa. The maximum power loss (and assumed heat generation) is listed at 3kW. The
assumed time of flight will be 60sec, and this is conservative. The motor and motor controller
will generate 66kJ of heat during operation.
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The cooling system will serve as a heat sink. No radiator will be used due to the near-vacuum
conditions and short time of flight. Distilled water will be used as coolant. The system will be
sealed during very pre-flight and the reservoir tank will maintain an internal pressure of
approximately 100kPa during flight. A 1gal reservoir of distilled water exposed to 66kJ of heat
will result in a 4°C temperature rise. The system requires a pump head of 0.7m. During longterm
storage, the coolant system will be filled with a glycol mixture for anti-freezing and antimicrobial
The motor and motor controller will have individual pumps, tubing, and sensors. This ensures
we can monitor and control coolant flow to the motor and controller independently. The pump
is a 12VDC water pump with maximum flow of 13L/min, a 4m, a maximum temperature of
60°C, and a maximum power draw of 1.2A. Each pump will receive 12VDC from the LV
power system, fused at 2.5A. Tubing is 0.375″ (9.525mm) ID nylon, rated to 450psi (3103kPa)
at 70°F (21°C) and a maximum temperature of 212°F (100°C). Fittings are High-Density
Polyethylene with a maximum pressure of 125psi (862kPa) and maximum temperature of
190°F (88°C).
The reservoir has two sensors. A pressure sensor will verify the reservoir is maintaining tank
pressure during vacuum conditions, and a temperature sensor will monitor the fluid temperature
rise during operation. The motor and motor controller will each have a pressure sensor at their
respective inlets to monitor delivered coolant pressure.
Before flight and during the INIT state, the Hyper lynx crew will activate the coolant pumps
and adjust them to reach desired motor and motor controller pressures. The pumps are
controlled by variable 12VDC signal, which will be controllable through the Mission Control
interface. The pumps will continue to run for the duration of the flight, and are only deactivated
by the crew after verifying reservoir, motor, and motor controller temperatures have stabilized
to safe levels.
Reservoir Temperature Rise (4.1°C)
?T=(Q/M*C) (1)
?T is the temperature rise in Celsius
Q is the heat input (66kJ)
M is the mass of coolant (3.8kg)
C is the heat capacity of the coolant (4184J/kg)
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Fluid Velocity (3.68m/s)
v=Q/A (2)
v is the fluid velocity in m/s
Q is the desired flow rate (1.1667×10-4
A is the cross-sectional area of the coolant tubing (3.1669×10-5
Required Pump Pressure (76456Pa)
P1=P2+?g(z2-z1) +?v2
/2(f*L/D+?K) (3)
P1is the required pump pressure in Pa
P2 is the desired line pressure at the motor (76443Pa)
? is the density of water at 30°C (995.7kg/m3
g is the gravitational acceleration, (9.81m/s2
z2 is the elevation of the motor from the datum (0.1m)
z1 is the datum elevation of the system (0m)
v is the velocity of the coolant from Eq.1
f is the friction factor for a smooth pipe, derived from the Moody chart
D is the diameter of the tubing (0.0064m)
L is the length of tubing (0.2m)
?K is the sum of the minor loss constants
Required Pump Head (0.7m)
hp=P2-P1/?g+(z2-z1) +v
/2g(f*L/D+?K) (4)
hp is the pump head in m
P2is the desired line pressure at the motor (76443Pa)
P1is the required pump pressure from Eq.2
? is the density of water at 30°C (995.7kg/m3
g is the gravitational acceleration, (9.81m/s2
z2 is the elevation of the motor from the datum (0.1m)
z1 is the datum elevation of the system (0m)
v is the velocity of the coolant from Eq.1
f is the friction factor for a smooth pipe, derived from the Moody chart
D is the diameter of the tubing (0.0064m)
L is the length of tubing (0.2m)
?K is the sum of the minor loss constants
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As for cooling system we are using is more practical and easy to implement. But it not the only
solution that can be applied to solve the problem. There are numerous ways (solution) that can
be used here but might not be practical to use them because they might be experimental or
requires lot more effort. I have found some other ways to increase the heat transfer from motor.
There are two modes by which we can increase heat transfer inside pod.
1) Increase radiative heat transfer.
2) Increase convective heat transfer.
Heat transfer by radiation between two surfaces at different temperature is given by the StefanBoltzmann
q = ??A (TH
– TC
? = Stefan-Boltzmann Constant=5.67*E-08 (W/m2K
TH = temperature of the hot surface(K)
Tc = temperature of cooler surface (K)
? = emissivity
A= surface area of heat sink
Now this equation indicates that the temperature difference between two surface has the
governing effect in the radiative heat transfer. But there are other constrains as emissivity and
surface area of heat sink.
But inside pod, as heat transfer occurs between motor and our surface, surface temperature will
rise constantly, and heat transfer will begin to reduce significantly as, it depends on power 4 of
temperature. So, even small temperature rise will reduce the heat transfer rapidly.
Other way to increase radiative heat transfer rate is to increase surface area. But since that can
increase weight of pod also and with limited space available it cannot be done.
But, as mentioned in this article, effective surface area can be increased without increasing
actual area of heat sink surface.
“An innovative is solution must be developed to increase the effective surface. area without
increasing the size of the parts. Microscopic texturing is such a solution. Microscopic surface
texturing not only increases the surface area; it also increases the emissivity of the surface at
the same time. This is because radiation heat transfer is primarily a surface phenomenon. Thus,
certain texturing. processes that provide sufficient control over surface feature morphology can
increase surface emissivity.” {1}
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Article talks about using surface treatments to increase surface area. Chemical etching is one
of the treatments used frequently and another common treatment is Ion beam texturing.
In theory later, technique can be used to generate any type of texture on surface as we required.
Images of textures
“The larger surface area will enhance radiation as well as convection heat transfer, provided
that the texturing can provide an excellent surface for pool boiling heat transfer, which is often
seen in cooling of high power electronics.” {1}
There is one technique which emphasizes on increasing emissivity of surface called Anodizing.
It is an electrochemical process that thickens and toughens the naturally occurring protective
oxide layer on the surface of metal parts.
“To demonstrate the contribution of anodizing in low airflow velocity applications, two ATS
maxi FLOW heat sinks, one anodized and the other non-anodized, were thermally,
characterized using the exact same method. The heat sink tested, ATS-440-C1-R0, has a
footprint of 45 x 38 mm, its overall height is 24 mm and its fin offset on each side is 21
mm. The heat sink was thermally characterized at natural convection and airflow velocities up
to 3 m/s at increments of 0.5 m/s. Figure 3 compares the thermal resistance of the
two heat sinks at different velocities. As shown, the thermal resistance of the anodized heat
sink at all airflow velocities is lower than that of the non-anodized heat sink. However, the
difference is most significant at natural convection and becomes smaller as the airflow
increases.” {1}
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Reviewing this article, suggests that use of Anodized textured surfaces can increase radiative
heat transfer for the same temperature difference between surfaces, by increasing emissivity
and effective surface area of heat sink surface. This can be used in future for pod, as we can
build a heatsink with anodizes etched surface around casing which contains liquid coolant. Not
only it will increase radiative heat extraction from motor, but it will also increase convective
heat transfer. As in mentioned in article,
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• Now, there is one other article “Enhancing radiative energy transfer through
thermal extraction” which talk about extracting nearfield radiation from emitter via thermal
extractor to increase radiative heat transfer.
As we know One of the fundamental constraints in thermal radiation is the Stefan-Boltzmann
law, which limits the maximum power of far-field radiation to Po = A?T4
, where ? is the
Boltzmann constant, A and T are the area and the temperature of the emitter(blackbody),
respectively. It is said that near-field radiations could have an energy density that is orders of
magnitude greater than the Stefan-Boltzmann law. Unfortunately, such near-field radiation
transfer is spatially confined and cannot carry radiative heat to the far field.
Article talks about “a new concept of thermal extraction was proposed to enhance far-field
thermal emission, which, conceptually, operates on a principle like oil immersion lenses and
light extraction in light-emitting diodes using solid immersion lens to increase light output.”
Thus, it will allow a black body to radiate more energy which will be able to reach far field
without breaking laws of thermodynamics. Basically, they put the thermal radiation extractor
so close to the emitter body that the distance between emitter and extractor is less the thermal
wavelength. The near field coupling is capable of transferring heat that has more energy density
than predicted by Stefan-Boltzmann equation. Thermal extractor is made of such material that
has high transitivity which allows near-field radiation to reach far field without being absorbed
or emitted by other surfaces. So, energy reached to far field well exceeds energy calculated
Stefan-Boltzmann equation.
The Article consists of series of experiments which consists using different material for thermal
extractor to see if hypothesis made about nearfield radiation will reach far field as extractor is
made of transparent high index materials.
They have run experiments with Thermal extractor made from natural material as well as
structured material. Experiment setup consist of a standard blackbody sphere with a cavity,
inside surface having high reflective index.
Results show that,
1) Thermal extractor must be in optical contact with emitter body meaning distance
between extractor and emitter surface should be less than thermal wavelengths.
Otherwise near field coupling will take place in between space.
2) Physical contact is not necessary, only optical contact. This will reduce or eliminate
conduction between extractor and emitter.
3) the thermal extraction device needs to provide enough radiation channels over the area
of the emitter to ensure that all internal modes of the emitter can out couple, which can
be achieved by making extractor density sates lighter than emitter.
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4) in the extraction device those optical modes that receive radiation from the emitter need
to be accessible to far-field vacuum. This places a constraint on the geometry of the
extraction device.
Example- A transparent high-index slab with a flat surface does not provide thermal
extraction. Even though more radiations can enter the slab, those outside the escape
cone cannot escape to far-field vacuum due to total internal reflection.
This solution is still in experimental basis as it may not possible to implement it in every
case. To apply this solution, we may have to make adjustment for thermal extractor
which are optically capable of transferring near- field couple to Fairfield outcoupled.
But also, these extractors must have high thermal insulation as in experiment they were
around room temperature whereas motor inside pod will around much higher
temperature. Thus, it is limited by material constraints of thermal extractors.
• A research paper,” Spectrally enhancing near-field radiative heat transfer
by exciting magnetic polariton in SiC gratings” also suggest that near field couples’ extraction
can be enhanced by presence of magnetic resonance or polariton. Magnetic polaritons (MP)
refer to the strong coupling of external electromagnetic waves with the magnetic resonance
excited inside the nanostructures. But presence of electromagnetic waves may hinder motor
output so cannot be used in my situation. Though it has immense application in real world like
in energy-harvesting, near-field imaging, thermal modulation, and thermal switch and
rectification we cannot use it. {3}
There are numerous articles on extracting near filed Radiation, consisting experiments and their
results are included using different material for thermal extractor like
1) Enhancement of near-field radiative heat transfer using polar dielectric thin films
2) Using high temperature liquid salts (Fluoride and Chloride salts)
3) Nanostructures consisting nanoparticles that emit electromagnetic radiation
May be in future we can use these methods with convenient and with sure results.
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Now as mentioned earlier that we are using a coolant to vacant produced heat which is done
by convection heat transfer mode. But still there are numerous ways to increase convective
heat transfer which have more concrete data that they will work and have been tested by many
experiments. As A review article “Recent Advances in Heat Transfer Enhancements”
Has said that for
“the mechanisms of heat transfer enhancement can be at least one of the following.
(1) Use of a secondary heat transfer surface.
(2) Disruption of the unenhanced fluid velocity.
(3) Disruption of the laminar sublayer in the turbulent boundary layer.
(4) Introducing secondary flows.
(5) Promoting boundary-layer separation.
(6) Promoting flow attachment/reattachment.
(7) Enhancing effective thermal conductivity of the fluid under static conditions.
(8) Enhancing effective thermal conductivity of the fluid under dynamic conditions.
(9) Delaying the boundary layer development.
(10) Thermal dispersion.
(11) Increasing the order of the fluid molecules.
(12) Redistribution of the flow.
(13) Modification of radiative property of the convective medium.
(14) Increasing the difference between the surface and fluid temperatures.
(15) Increasing fluid flow rate passively.
(16) Increasing the thermal conductivity of the solid phase using special nanotechnology
fabrications.” {4}
As we can see first mechanism uses increased surface area technique which is very common
way to have more heat transfer. Now and no. (2) can be done increasing the surface area in
contact with the fluid to be heated or cooled by using fins, intentionally promoting turbulence
in the wall zone employing surface roughness and tall/short fins, and inducing secondary flows
by creating swirl flow using helical/spiral fin geometry and twisted tapes.
Increasing turbulence can be help in some application to increase mixing of fluids, to increase
heat transfer by convection as turbulent flow will have more collisions between fluid particles,
which increase contact time and transfer of energy from one particle to another.
Arman and Rabas discussed the turbulent flow structure as the flow passes over a twodimensional
transverse rib. They noted that eddies are generated above the flow regions,
particularly at the top of the rib and one in the downstream mixing zone. These zones have the
highest heat transfer rate because of the eddies. Which is basically experiment base don of no
(6) mechanism.
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Ding et al conducted an experiment and as result he got that, that fluids containing 0.5wt.%
of carbon nanotubes (CNT) can increase heat transfer by 250% at Re = 800, which is
significant. report. The increases in heat transfer due to presence of nanofluids are basically
following mechanisms, no (7 & 8).
Heat transfer Enhancers:
1) Creating extended surfaces (Fins)
2) Use of Porous Media (As fluid)
3) Use of Nanofluids
4) Use of complex flexible seals
5) Use of vortex generators (to get turbulent flow)
6) Use of ultra-hight thermal conductive materials
Heat Transfer Enhancer Heat Transfer in presence of enhancer/Heat
Transfer in absence of Enhancer
Fins Inside Tubes 2
Porous Media 12(approx.)
Nano Fluids 3.5
Complex Flexible seals 3
Vortex Generators 2.5
Ultra-high thermal conductivity composite
materials 6
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14
Fins Inside Tubes
Porous Media
Nano Fluids
Complex Flexible seals
Vortex Generators
Ultra high thermal conductivity composite…
Ratio of HT in presence of Enhancer to absence of enhancers
Heat Transfer Enhancers
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{1} Radiation Heat Transfer and Surface Area Treatments
Q pedia Thermal Magazine (Q pedia Thermal Magazine Volume II, Issues 1-12 2008)
{2} Enhancing radiative energy transfer through thermal extraction
Tan, Y., Liu, B., Shen, S., & Yu, Z. (2016). Enhancing radiative energy transfer through
thermal extraction. Nanophotonics, 5(1). doi:10.1515/nanoph-2016-0008)
{3} Spectrally enhancing near-field radiative heat transfer
by exciting magnetic polariton in SiC gratings
Yang, Y., & Wang, L. (2016). Spectrally Enhancing Near-Field Radiative Transfer between
Metallic Gratings by Exciting Magnetic Polaritons in Nanometric Vacuum Gaps. Physical
Review Letters, 117(4). doi:10.1103/physrevlett.117.044301
{4} Recent Advances in Heat Transfer Enhancements: A Review Report
Siddique, M., Khaled, A. A., Abdul hafiz, N. I., & Boukhary, A. Y. (2010). Recent Advances
in Heat Transfer Enhancements: A Review Report. International Journal of Chemical
Engineering, 2010, 1-28. doi:10.1155/2010/106461