Dads I move into my practicum one placement next semester, it is important for me to understand the roots of reading and writing for when must teach them to students. Though I would prefer to teach a class between third and fifth grades, chances are great that as a first year teacher, I will end up accepting just about anything that is available from kindergarten to sixth grade. As such, a firm understanding in the universal stages of speech, reading, and writing is pivotal to my success as an educator.
As such, I have already learned quite a bit, but I am ever learning more on how the initial takes of reading actually apply to verbal language acquisition as well. As children learn to talk, it is important to realize that speech acquisition comes in stages. Though we would love to imagine that we do, it is seldom the case that parents rarely teach their children oral language skills (Honing, 582). Instead they Start out by exploring what noises they are capable Of making (Acacia, 50). An infant starts out by making noises and exploring their ever expanding ability to make noise.
Then as they grow a little older, they learn that their visualization can have an impact, be it for attention, fun, fear, or immunization. As the child’s skill and comprehension increase, they begin to communicate by not random noises, but as single words. These single words may have different gestures and tones that are used for many different meanings. As they learn new words, they begin to connect them in the two- word stage. These mini-sentences can have large meanings, or small. They may only use two words, but they can contain a full sentence in them.
For example, “doggy bark” means that the dog is barking, or the dog was barking, or that they want the dog to bark. After this, the children start the telegraphic hash of speech in which they are not using functional words such as articles and other grammar inducing words. After this stage, comes the later multi- word stage. At this point, the children are beginning to use more grammar and “complete” sentences. As students practice, they will become more fluent and their sentence structure and grammar become more accurate.
While this occurs, children will commit many miscues in the process. One of the examples that was repeatedly brought up in class was “mommy good. ” While they have never heard an adult say this, most children will use this “mistake”, or miscue, when they talk. Mistake is in quotes because it is not a mistake, but instead an over extension of the information that they already know. The child knows that “deed” tends to make things past tense, such as played, walked, and traveled. They take this on to words like swimmer, swinger, and good because they are simply over extending.
Recently I had the fortune to observe a fifteen month old boy named Willis. He is one of my coworkers children, and is really funny when you watch and listen to him. Willis is the younger of two children; his older sister is 8 years Old. They live in a bilingual household. The mother speaks German as her first engage, but is an exceedingly fluent English speaker. The father is an English first language learner and knows some German, but is not fluent. Willie’s older sister took a while to speak her first full words, but since then has become bilingual as well.
At 15 months old, he is behind what one of our handouts says he should be able to say as he only has a few words in his repertoire; although he vocalizes very frequently. According to the Alaska Head Start State Collaboration Project, by 13 months, Willis should be able to “begin connecting syllables into words and learn that words have meaning by naming objects such as Mom, cup, toes and nose. ” Between 12-18 months, Willis should be able to acquire a new word every 2 hours or so and use the same word to mean different things by changing his tone and using gestures.
Based on my observations, Willis is in between the babbling and one-word stages. He is babbling primarily, however he has started into the one word stage. His words are primarily consonant-vowel patterns, with the occasional consonant-vowel-consonant or vowel-consonant pattern. This may however be due to the way was hearing them. I heard many different “dada”, “had”, www”, “haw”, and other similar patterns from him. On occasion however in the time I’ve spent with Willis, he will say things like “uh”, “Oh”, and “ABA” sounds. He did have Some specific phoneme and morphemes that he used.
Willis only used to complete English morphemes when I was with him. They were “dada” and “banana. ” He had a few different phonemes he would use for different things, and he would repeatedly say it in the same way. When he was trying to say something about Fin Fuggy, Willis’ dog, he would say “humph” in a serious tone and drop his head. He did this repeatedly. This is n example of a protector. A protector is what linguists call the earliest sounds that babies make consistently (Honing, peg. 589). Willis’ “humph” is an example of a protector for his dog Fin Fuggy.
Willis would also use the same phoneme, albeit with different sounds to say several things. “Dada” was his favorite. Everything was “dada”. He used this to talk about his pasta, his sister, water, dad, and several other things. Willis’ family helps promote his speech by using a talk rich environment. It is important to continue to use a talk rich environment in the classroom to promote learning as well. In the Talk article, Acacia talks about a teacher named Christian who teaches first grade. He works as hard as he can to create a talk rich environment which is how children of this age learn.
To do this, she uses a curriculum that is inspired by their interests. She keeps in mind to use district and state materials as her generalized guidelines, but she heavily supplements this with the kid’s questions and knowledge, using materials to answer questions and give them more information. She then makes sure that they have a variety of reasons to use language. The third thing she does in her classroom is create an environment that promotes colonization. She does this by including a large area for whole class work, small group tables, and independent working areas.
She also believes it is important for kids to feel safe in their environment, and that each of them is an expert. Because they all come from various experiences, they are all an expert on something (Acacia, 54). Students use various settings to use different speech styles. Observing children’s talk in a variety of settings allows teachers to develop an insight into their students’ language and knowledge growth (Acacia, 55). This also wows what may be the most impressive task a child may commit without even being aware they are doing it.
Children use pragmatics, or the uttering of language formality depending on the situation at hand. One example of this use of pragmatics is when in school, a preschool student may call one of their peers a “poppy-head,” but they would never do this to grandpa (Honing, 583). As a child learns to read and write, they start with a few predictable patterns. They “write” using a series of symbols to mean different things. They hypothesize that longer strings of letters mean bigger things, like a barn or randomly, and adversely that shorter strings of letters mean smaller things like salamander and kid (Acacia, 28).
As their writing continues, they begin to learn directionality. As English reading adults, it makes sense to us that text reads from left to right, starting at the top of the page and proceeding to the bottom. It was of no problem for you to understand what the order was for this paper because you are so used to it. As a child, directionality is not as obvious (Acacia, 29). Other languages read from left to right, or starting at the top of a page, and moving straight down the character list to the bottom.
One of the final steps before they are beginning to read is that they learn that letters relate to sounds. Acacia uses the example of a child knowing that C-R- E-S-T could not possibly spell toothpaste, because it starts with (Acacia, 30). Prior to children reading on their own, they often are read stories. Many of these stories will drive the parent or guardian crazy because of the immense number of times a child wants to reread a story. They will hear the story so many times that they will begin to know small parts, then the entire text word for word and seem to be able to read it back to you.
This is holistic numbering. This is a significant stage of reading development (Acacia, 42). After that comes the print to meaning stage. At this point, children begin to use print to guide their reading. They will follow the adult or their own finger as they are being read to. They will fill in predicted words and phrases near the end of a sentence that makes sense to them (Acacia, 43). When they are able to use their finger to show what words are being read and keep place in the book, they are once again showing their mastery of directionality (Acacia, 40).
As they are using a book, they will be able to orient the book properly, urn pages appropriately, and show that they read from the left page to the right page as well. These are all basics of book handling that will lead them to reading. As a child begins to read, they start by realizing that letters have meaning and what sounds they make. Then as they become more fluent in understanding what the letters and sounds mean, they become able to focus less on the interpreting each letter and phoneme as an individual, and focus more on the morpheme as a whole.
When this occurs, they begin to comprehend better and gain fluency. After this begins to occurs, students tart to extend their written vocabulary and comprehension. When broken down into its component parts, reading is very complex, but as you do it, it comes so significantly easier after the initial learning curve. There are three cueing systems for reading: chronographic, syntax, and semantics (Davenport, 7). As with speech, there is a fourth cuing system that tells about the information that should come from the text that is being read.
This is pragmatics (Davenport 2). Each one is an integral portion of reading and making sense while doing it. In class they were put into a Venn diagram with the center as “understanding. Dictionary. Com defines syntax as the arrangement of words and phrases to create well-formed sentences in a language. As such, without syntax we would have no idea what a series of words means. Semantics is the meaning of the words. For example semantically speaking, house and home mean the same thing however this is where the third cuing system comes into play.
Choreographically, the two are different. Chronographic is decoding of the letters and letter patterns and creating speech sounds. This process is very important for learning new words via text as well as one of the toughest to learn. Since We have 26 rephrases in the English language, and 40 phonemes, there is a confusing amount of sounds each letter or combination of letters can make. A grapheme is a graphic symbol we use to show meaning. A phoneme is the auditory sound that has been assigned to a grapheme (Weaver, Peg 5).
Since there are 40 sounds and only 26 different letters, it is frequently confusing to beginning readers and those learning English (Wilder 14). In addition to this, it has been shown that reading is not conducted a letter at a time, and it is not a standardized, linear path. In fact, as a reader, we view text with “windows” or cicadas. These cicadas show not just the characters next to what we are reading, but the tops of the letters on the line below. This allows us an opportunity to predict what is coming next (Weaver, 92).
This can be shown by a section in the book, just a few pages later. The author read 3 different columns of text, timing each one. Column 1 was single letters; it took her 7 seconds to read it. Column 2 was 4 letter words, again 7 seconds. Column 3 was 8 letter words and it took her 8 seconds to read through the line. This shows that we do not read one letter at a time, but instead in windows Weaver, 96). We also have an easier time reading when we are able to use the predictable sounds of consonants, it becomes much less mandatory for the vowels to be present.
This is not the case when all we have is vowels due to the immense number of sounds each one makes (Weaver, 93). It is important with reading, especially at the early ages and stages, that there be time for responses. After reading a text, or even part of a text, a teacher should stop and allow time for responses. These may include questions like “So, what do you think? (Tiebreak, 163). ” These are important, as is allowing ample time for response, because it is a great way for students to not only think about what they have learned, but also to gain more understanding when they hear their classmates talk as well.
Initially there may be short responses such as “It was funny,” but with a little digging, the students tend to have a lot more to say about it than they initially said. Oral responses are great for promoting learning from one another. And as Tiebreak says, even though sometimes it may seem like a “luxury’ to give the students time to reflect orally, giving them the time is important. It sets a classroom environment that students want to read and listen to reading for enjoyment and to show that they are expected to participate in the activity, not just that they are supposed to read for school (Tiebreak, 165).
Another useful type of response is one that have seen my placement teacher use frequently in her class, and that is written response. Many times, the canned curriculum that she is required to use provides worksheets that the students are supposed to fill out. They come with a set of prepare and partially filled out answers. This is one type of response sheet that is talked about in the article as well. The there is a piece of paper that has writing lines on one part of the paper, and room to draw on the other. This is one of the most frequent ones that I saw my teacher use.
It allows for the students to write a few sentences about their reading, and to draw a picture that has to do With it as well (Tiebreak, 166). Reading and writing acquisition follow rather similar patterns. One of the best practices is to surround students with a variety of different types of print. Some examples as provided by Acacia include environmental print such as street signs, bills, and company signs; occupational print such as menus and accepts; informational print like biographies and phenomenon; and recreational print like story books and magazines (Acacia, 79).
As the students begin to learn about the grapheme, the smallest portion of written language that holds meaning, they learn that each one has its own sound. One example from the text was a boy named Corny’. He wrote, “L Z ET BIZ. ” This was meant to read, “Llamas eat pajamas. ” This is a typical Stage in spelling where children who are learning to write will use the letters that they know and that is it (Willed, 22). A few weeks later he wrote, “l HP U G BIT SIN,” which meant “l hope you get better soon. This shows a basic pattern of his written language acquisition and as such, his reading beginning as well.
By two months after his initial writing above, he had written, “DO N TO GET NEAR A BAD ENAMEL LICK A RADICANDS. ” This was to say “do not get near a bad animal like a rattlesnake (Acacia, 84). ” This developmental progression can be seen quite clearly, and is a normal pattern to follow. Another typical pattern with spelling is that of phonetic spelling (Willed, 21 As children learn to spell, they follow through a stage where they use the sounds that they hear and use those as the basis for their spelling. Kids will learn the power of writing relatively quickly as well.
Written language provides ample opportunity for people to pass on meaning without presence as well as provide the reader with a means of using their background knowledge and imagination to provide a better experience. Another thing that students learn is that they are able to use writing to show emotion, noise, or power (Acacia, 85). Now that there is a basis for understanding how children learn, it is important to understand mistakes that they make. There is a better term than mistake however. A miscue is a change in the text during oral reading in order o remove the implication that the reader has done something wrong (Davenport, 23).
As such, this term is more socially acceptable and encouraging for students as well. It takes away the notion that the reader has made a mistake, and instead that they altered the text in a unique way that may or may not change the readers understanding of the text (Davenport, 24). There are a large variety of miscues that can be used, however some basic categories for them are substitutions, omissions, partials, insertions, regressions, pauses, repeated miscues, and complicated miscues (Davenport, 29).
Within each of these are between 1 and 9 subcategories of miscues such as word, phrase or line, and end punctuation being three different types of omissions. Of the syntax cueing system, one of the three main parts of it is the pattern marker. The pattern marker system one that uses function words, word endings, and internal changes in the words. One example Of this is in the sentence, “The girls ride their bicycles down the street. ” The s on “bicycles” and “girls” indicate plurality, as does “their” (Davenport, 10).
My reading buddy is a second grade girl who is an inconsistent reading tester and who trudges with reading. When she feels comfortable and engaged, she is able to do relatively well, however if given a text she does not feel engaged in, or in a situation she does not feel comfortable, such as a new teacher, she tends to clam up and does significantly worse on her fluency tests than she is capable. Followed much of the protocol on page 1 88 in the Weaver text that pertained to the first session section.
For her profile, asked her to read “Frog and Toad: The Letter. ” We had read together on a previous time one of the other Frog and Toad stories and she was engaged in it. This is an important part to eating a good testing (Weaver, 191). We initially went on a picture walk and she was able to tell me at least a basic idea of what the characters were doing and that the pictures were all connected in a single story and that the characters were the same in each picture, though she could not pick out Frog and Toad from one another, which honestly, neither can l.
After the picture walk, we went through a couple of strategies to use when she got stuck on a word that she didn’t know. At this point, we began our reading and she attempted to read to the best of her ability. Typically the first couple pages re ignored due to the reader attempting to get the writings flow, however based on how she did, decided to include the first pages as well. Of the 467 words in “The Letter”, she made 37 miscues. Of the miscues she made, 20 were spontaneously self corrected. That gives her a spontaneous self correction rate Of 54 percent.
With all Of her miscues included, she read at 92 percent which is at the instructional level, however with only her uncorrected miscues included, she was at 96. 4 percent, which is right at the lower end of the independent level. That means that “Frog and Toad: The Letter would be eight at the toughest end of her independent level, or right at the easy end of her instructional level stories. Of the miscues she did not self correct, most of them were relatively simple and made sense as far as syntax and semantics both, however choreographically, they were wrong.
It seemed as though she was attempting to anticipate the next words in the sentence. One example she said was “Any day my mailbox is empty,” while the text read “Every day my mailbox is empty. ” She makes several more along this pattern throughout her readings, not only in this instance, but in most of the time I have read tit her. After all of the story was read, I asked her to retell the story In her words. She told how Toad was sad, that Fog did this, Toad did that, etc. She was able to tell nearly every event from the story in order, but she did not make any inferences.
This shows her literal comprehension is strong, but since I did not ask her for any inferences or prompt her due to the thoroughness that she answered my question with (Weaver, 195). I did not get a chance to test her ability to infer or make personal connections due to time constraints. Her writing is similar. Depending on how she is dong at that mime of the day, she uses different patterns with her spelling and different consistencies. One example of this is a comparison of 2 stories she wrote 1 day apart.
The first (appendix 1) she uses close spelling, getting many sight words correct, the second (appendix 2) is attempting to sound out many words, and is not spelling them correctly though she had the day before and in prior and latter writings I had seen her do. For example in appendix 2 she spelled “ether. ” In another sample profiting I saw of hers, she spelled other correctly 3 times in a single piece. She is sounding out the words, but due tangentially due to a speech impediment, or not properly pronouncing the words, she is coming up with ones like “pitting” and “khakis” for picnic and jackets respectively.
I believe she is at a State of successive approximation where she is continually on the correct track, with no need to intervene. She seems to understand the functions of writing and of different genres, but she is lacking on her grammar intermittently as well as her punctuation, but the punctuation will come with time.