Structural analysis of the twin towers

There are things that could have been done leading up to during and after the attack that would have prevented the towers from tumbling down. Anything and everything from the material used to the design, from the type of windows to the width of the desks could have helped prevent the twin towers from collapsing in New York. When all the evidence is looked at, in such manner and in the right point of view, it can be thought to an arguable extent that the world trade center collapse could have been prevented even with the Jet liners flying into the side of them both.When it all comes own to the point the plane crash might have been the catalyst but was not the definite or only cause that brought towers down. When it comes to doing a structural analysis of a structure a complete breakdown of everything that has ever had to do with that structure at any point in time. The first thing that should be examined is from the beginning is the design flaws of the world trade center.

Since this was a ground breaking project the designers had an ever daunting task in front of them.They needed to design a tower that broke all the rules but somehow followed them at the same time. The upkeep of the tower was pretty such not paid attention to as much as it should have been at the time.

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Many motions were pushed to renovate the towers but due to economic reasons they were never passed. According to the Engineering News Record the one big decision that could have saved many lives was never made. This was the decision “… Not to add disproportionate collapse resistance and hardened stairwell requirements to the most widely adopted commercial building code (Engineering 1)”.This means that the committee that was in charge of making up to date renovations turned down a proposal that was crucial to the upkeep of the towers.

These disproportionate collapse resistant stair wells would have prevented certain parts of the tower from coming down therefore potentially saving hundreds of lives. Another one of the major flaws the contributed greatly to the collapse was the wrong use of metal in the tower. In the tower were located twelve grade types of metals all varying in different strengths and densities (United States 2-3). The way the tower was originally designed the metal system would have worked.

It was designed so that the entire tower was symmetrical and the grades of steel were the same on both sides (United States 2-3). This means that the building was built incorrectly and the grade densities were not the same on the outer wall as they should have been on the inner walls. So when the planes hit the towers if it had been built right the outside would have taken up much more of the impact than it did in real life causing a huge hole in the wall there could not be a bigger flaw in one of the biggest design projects of our time but there is.The most noticeable problem that most professors point out is in the way the columns are set up and spaced out and the way that the columns differ from the alumnus on the outside. From the looks of the schematics of the world trade center building number two it shows that the entire tower was held up by the thin columns on the inside of the structure and barely supported by the strong heavy duty columns on the outer parts of the structure (United States 2-5). From this sense of view it seems that as hard as the building may have tried to stay together it was given no chance to Just collapse the second the fire broke out intensely.All of this was done to say and estimated 30 million dollars back in the time when it was built.

So it seems like the economy and the mindset of the time played a major role in the world trade center collapse and everything to do with it, either directly or in directly. There were only 2 good reasons to go with this design and it seems like both of the m were at the forefront of the designers mind. The first one was to save money by not spending as much as he needed to on the material.The other is the fact to make more money by having more space in the building to rent out to the rest of the people by giving them the space that should have belonged to the thicker parts of the columns. Another segment of the tower that must be looked at is the materials that were used in the tower and the things that could have been done to make the structure better and use the materials a little wiser.

The problem right off the bat that is noticed after the collapse is the use of red steel within a building. The problem of this is the fact that during the insulation process the insulation never had the chance to bond to the steel.This is because of the chemical properties of painted steel does not allow easy unforced bonding to occur like its counterpart bare steel (Eager 7). Other problems with the materials were that the insulation that was put in and used on a good 90 percent of the building was not up to code.

The insulation did not contain crucial chemicals that would bond to any steel. The insulation would also make it so the building if it ever caught on fire would be more susceptible to more extensive damage than if it had been treated with the chemicals and agents (Eager 6).Again after doing a little more research and analyzing costs the amount of money that was saved by making the design this way and using the materials that were eventually chosen came to an approximate 15 million dollars Just in chemical treatments alone. The next part, after looking at what is there and how it all was put there, is looking at how everything that is there is maintained and how it was modified in order to keep the working function on the structure.

All the beginning of all the problems of upkeep and maintenance can at latest be dated back to 1976 when the fire chief stated the 5 major things wrong with the building code.The first was the failure to prepare the steel for spray-on coating adhesion (Field 62). This is Just simply stating that before the coating went on the beams of the tower they were not properly sterilized and cleaned and thus the adhesion was not a total success and created problems. The second part was poor or uneven application of the spray-on fire retarding (Field 62). Stated in layman’s terms it is saying that when the adhesive was problems for the structure to later handle.The last 3 points pretty much state that the adhesive variation that was used was defective, not enough of the adhesive was used in the coating of the steel beams and that the adhesive was not updated or placed every so often like the design and directions called for (Field 62).

All this basically comes to down to a giant lack of competence of the workers that were hired to do this Job. Again at this point it seems like the people that were contracted out to do most of the building was Just your average run of the mill person and again it seems as such as this was Just another ploy to save money.Stemming from all of the problems listed above the final and probably most crucial cause of the collapse happened. This cause is one of the most controversial ones even though it is so very plausible. This cause is that the fire of caused the building to collapse and that it Just folded up on top of itself and made itself Just crumble from the fire. According to A. S.

Susan’ the way the fire collapsed the tower is that it seemed to melt the steel columns and they Just folded on top of themselves (506). This is a very plausible idea for the main reason and cause of a collapse in the structure.There was a high amount of Jet liner fuel that was released into the towers. This is due to the fact that the plane’s fuselage did not fully break apart until it hit the tower and exploded (Eager 6). This would be a great starting point for determining a cause of the collapse and everything did for the most part add up in the tests and analysis of the materials. This test showed that the materials used in the building would eventually collapse under the pressure and weight and heat and all the spontaneous things happening at that moment in time.

This all is what Baa •Kant is saying in his statements in his paper when he talks about the reason for the collapse. Vacant states that the main reason for the collapse is the steel beams in the bottom of the tower as opposed to the ones at the very top of the tower like everyone thinks happened. According to him the twin towers failed because the structural columns at the buildings’ core, damaged by the impact of the airliners, buckled and shortened as the fires burned, gradually shifting more load to the tower’s exterior pinstripe columns. The exterior columns ultimately suffered such extraordinary stress and heat that they gave way(.Baa •Kant 3).

There is a common misconception about the fact that it was Just one floor at the top of the tower that collapsed and Just caused a pancake effect. When actually the collapse was caused by multiple factors. Which do included anything from the tower shifting to the fire burning to the weakening of the beams that were inside at the center core of the building. After all of the actual factual analysis of the data and the testing there is one more thing needed to make the research complete. This is the analysis of everything they may have been missed of thrown out the door because it Just sounded too bogus to be real.This can also be known as the conspiracy theories. Sometimes these can Just be bogus but there are a few out there that can and possibly might hold some water.

There is a couple that worth mentioning because of the fact they seem mathematically plausible. The first one is the fact that the United States government was in on it in more ways than one. The first way would have been that they knew to war and get over seas to stop what was going on in the Middle East (Kangaroo 3). The next possible theory is the one that everyone is raving about and Just might seem to be true.

This theory is the one where it seems that there are small explosions well below the impact point. It Just seems to people that there is something else that is going on in that picture. After looking at many videos all across the internet it does seem like there may be something going on in those areas but with all the actions and intensity of the day it is really hard to tell when is actually going on in the floors below impact point. It seems after watching off of many websites and TV news archives that there might be a bang or flashes right before the place hits the building.But after Just looking into it simply for more than five minutes there are multiple explanations on why those events actually took place. In response to the first one, there were fighter pilots in the air and scrambled to intercept the lanes but they never got there in time. This is because of the fact that they were notified way to late and by the time all 4 planes go to Manhattan the towers had already been struck by the flying bombs.

The second one is a little harder to dispel but it was done and it seems that what is seen in the cameras and pictures is that there is a small time lag between the lenses and the actual event.This can be accounted for due to the fact that all of the tapes and filming spots are a very long safe distance away from the towers and things are very hard to actually make out from that kind of a distance. Another standard defense of small amount of time is the speed of light and sound. Although it is really hard to see it still exists and in proving things wrong on this kind of a level it has to be accounted for and is clearly part of the reason for this rumor.Over all this research has come back with a lot of good conclusions and a lot of questions that still need to be asked in order to find out the true meaning of everything. There is obviously many not only proven reasons but there are also a number of unproven reasons for the September 1 lath World Trade Center collapse. It could have been anything from the fire in the beam to the bad pin-stripe design of the outer walls or the government had a hand in it and they chose to kill thousands of their own people.

There was one thing that was being proven this entire time and that was the fact that when it all comes down to the point the plane crash might have been the catalyst but was not the definite or only cause that brought towers down. From the looks of the research there are many things that occurred on that fateful and egregious day in history. But as can be seen in the text that nowhere is here and theory or proven result that Just states that the plane crash was the sole cause for the collapse.Also it does not Just say that the plane flew into the side of both buildings and they both Just proceeded to fall over after they were impacted. This undoubtedly proves the thesis correct in more ways than one. But the only way to really know for sure is if you were somewhere in that building on September 1 lath 2001.

It was really hard to try and get in contact with those people but I am sure they would agree that there was no funny business involved and that everything happened the way it is said to have happened.