Study guide

Why does Earth experience precession?
because the plane of the moon’s orbit is tilted from the Earth’s elliptical plane.
Why are the seasons in the Southern Hemisphere opposite to those in the Northern Hemisphere?
The earth revolves around the sun but it is tilted. The angle of the tilt does not change the position of the planet. The summer is when that part of the globe is tilted towards the sun. If the northern hemisphere is tiled toward the sun, the southern hemisphere would be tiled away. The part tilted towards the sun gets more sunlight and is warmer. The part tilted away wouldn’t get as much light and would be colder.
Which is true about Earth’s motions through space?
The tilt of the Earth’s axis and its revolution around the sun produces seasons.
Which of the following chemical reactions produce the sun’s energy?
Hydrogen nuclei combine through nuclear fusion into helium.
How is solar energy essential to plants?
Solar energy is converted to chemical energy used by plants.
How does the sun’s energy affect food webs on Earth?
The wavelengths of visible light stimulate plant cells to produce energy compounds by photosynthesis.
Explain how sea floor spreading occurs.
Seafloor spreading is a process that occurs at mid-ocean ridges, where new oceanic crust is formed through volcanic activity and then gradually moves away from the ridge.
How does the subduction of crustal plates influence the rock cycle?
The processes of heating and melting of rock layers form the parent material for igneous rocks.
How are plate boundaries, earthquakes, and volcanoes related?
Subduction plates, where one tectonic plate is driven under another, are associated with volcanoes and earthquakes. This activity is focused along the edge of the plate boundary where two plates come into contact, forming Pacific Ring of Fire.
Why are seismic waves of an earthquake more strongly felt at the epicenter of an earthquake?
because the epicenter is directly above the focus, the place inside the earth where the earthquake starts.
Approximately when did the fault occur?
After layer B was deposited.
Explain how mechanical weathering can affect the rate of chemical weathering.
Mechanical weathering is simply the physical breakup of rocks. Chemical weathering is changing rock into new compounds.
Why are wind, water, and gravity major agents of erosion rather than weathering?
because erosion involves movement of earth materials from one location to another.
From a scientific perspective, which of the following sequences of action is best way to solve problems of wetland erosion?
add sediments, plantings, monitor plants
What is more likely to prevent mass-movement events?
contour plowing of crop area.
In which layer of the atmosphere is the jet stream located?
trophosphere
cP (continental polar)
dry and cold
cT (continental tropical)
dry and hot or warm
mP (maritime polar)
wet and cold
mT(martime tropical)
wet and hot
What is the difference in the air temperature and humidity between the cP and mT air mass?
The mT air mass is warmer and more humid.
Low pressure (also called cyclone)
cloudy and precipitation
bad weather
high pressure (also called anticyclone)
clear skies and fair weather
What is the general movement of the surface winds around the center of the low-pressure area?
counterclockwise and inward
What is the general movement of the surface winds around the center of the high – pressure area?
clockwise and outward
Assuming the low-pressure center (L ) follows a typical storm track, it will move
along the path of the jet stream to the north east.
transpiration
plants absorb water and release to the atmosphere through ____.
runoff
when the rate of rainfall exceeds Earth’s ability to absorb it, the excess water flows over surface into lacks and streams
What is an example of a transform plate boundary?
San Andreas Fault
How does the replacement of large areas with concrete and asphalt affect the land?
It increases erosion of sediments by increasing runoff.
Why does mining of coal and other natural resources result in environment pollution?
Mining creates waste material which can flow into streams.
Of the following which energy source produces the least amount of solid waste?
natural gas
How is the balance of heat energy maintained in the oceans?
Heat energy is cycled by currents between the equator and the polar regions.
What is porosity?
percentage of the total volume of rock or sediment that consists of pore spaces
What is permeability?
is the ability to release a fluid.
ex: clay is impermeable to water
When is the subsurface phase of the water cycle complete?
when groundwater emerges in places where the water table interacts with the ground surface
In what type of soil would seepage of groundwater into streams occur the slowest?
fine clay
Describe the groundwater flow through the two samples A & B. Explain your answer.
Sample A has greater permeability. It will allow water to easily flow through it.
Describe the different types of irrigation methods used.
Uses of irrigation:
assist in growing of crops
maintenance of landscape
revegetation of disturbed soils in dry areas
periods of inadequate rainfall
How would several wells in a given area affect the balance of groundwater recharge and discharge.
The wells would deplete the groundwater which is usually supplied by percolation from rain.
How does land use impact water quality?
determine type and amounts of contaminants entering streams, lakes, and aquifers (well)
What is non-point source of pollution and how does it affect water quality. How can we correct this problem
Runoff from agricultural areas drain into a river. This is harmful to drinking water, recreation, fisheries, and wildlife
When a sewer pipe breaks near a stream, which would most likely occur?
decrease in the amount of oxygen
What is the geocentric model?
Earth centered. The moon, sun, and the known planets orbit Earth
What is the heliocentric model?
Sun-centered. Heliocentric means that the Earth and other planets orbit the sun.
The modern heliocentric model of planetary motion states that the planets travel around
The sun in a slightly elliptical orbits.
Which location has the warmest and most arid (dry)?
leeward of the mountain
Which factor is primarily responsible for location A (New York) having a lower average yearly temperature than location B (Florida)
latitude
El Coy is a South American city located at 40 degrees south latitude. The first day of winter at this location occurs on June 21. During which month could the coldest day of the year most likely occur at this location?
July
The map below shows a typical position and average velocity of the polar front jet stream during two different seasons
cooler temperatures farther south and causes storms to move more rapidly.
Which soil characteristics allows greater amounts of water retention?
small-size particles
ex: clay
A paved blacktop parking was built on what was once a soil-covered field. This area will now experience increased runoff when rain occurs because the paved parking lot has
less permeability
(In other words, water is going to runoff and you could experience flooding)
The map below shows a typical position and average velocity of the polar front jet stream during two different seasons
cooler temperatures farther south and causes storms to move more rapidly.
Which soil characteristics allows greater amounts of water retention?
small-size particles
ex: clay
A paved blacktop parking was built on what was once a soil-covered field. This area will now experience increased runoff when rain occurs because the paved parking lot has
less permeability
(In other words, water is going to runoff and you could experience flooding)
Which processes of the water cycle returns water vapor directly to the atmosphere?
evaporation and transpiration
What caused the interior of Earth to separate into layers?
the gravitational pull on materials of varying densities.
Analysis of which type of data led to the development of this model?
seismic waves
The arrow at which location correctly shows a deflection of the wind that could be due to the Coriolis effect?
Northern Hemisphere (right)
Southern Hemisphere (left)
What are the layers of the atmosphere?
trophosphere (clouds, weather)
stratosphere (ozone layer)
thermosphere
exosphere
Why do planes fly in the stratosphere, the second-lowest layer of the atmosphere?
to avoid storms and other weather events
What is the number 1 gas found in the atmosphere?
nitrogen
What is the number 2 gas found in the atmosphere?
oxygen
What is the number 3 gas found in the atmosphere
argon
The earth’s atmosphere is mainly composed of which 3 gases?
argon, nitrogen, and oxygen
How does a cold front form?
Cold air advances, forcing warm air to rise.
Cyclone
Inward spiraling winds that rotate counterclockwise in Northern Hemisphere & clockwise in the Southern Hemisphere
How are hurricanes and tornadoes related to air masses?
They form where two air masses meet.
On an August afternoon in North Carolina, the barometric pressure is 29.92 inches and falling. What weather condition is likely to happen?
imminent storm.
How does acid rain form and how does it affect the environment?
air pollution comes from burning fossil fuels. (two main pollutants are sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide)
Where would the highest amounts of acid rain most likely be found?
urban area like New York city
What is the difference between weather and climate?
Weather is the immediate condition of the weather.
Climate is the general conditions over a long period of time.
What is the major difference between weather and climate?
time
Which of the following is an example of climate?
the average temperature in Raleigh, NC over the past 30 years.
El Nino
warmer sea water. The average ocean surface water temperature is warm. Bad rains across west coast of N.A. and S.A.
La Nina
cool waters off coast of S. America
Droughts.
Describe Greenhouse effect and how it affects our climate?
carbon dioxide and water vapor are the main two greenhouse gases.
Trapping of CO2 leads to higher temperature.
Explain the correlation to carbon dioxide levels and temperature levels.
When CO2 levels go up, temperature increase
When CO2 levels go down, temperature decrea
How does the rise in sea levels affect shorelines?
Sea level rise. This leads to soil erosion, so people could lose their homes.
What has happened to hurricane patterns due to climate change?
Warmer oceans result in rising sea levels and more powerful storms.
Global warming is most likely occurring due to an increase in
carbon dioxide and methane gases in the atmosphere
What is physical weathering?
You end with same material in the end.
What is chemical weathering?
You end with different material in the end, such as smoke, CO2, soot.
Which Earth process is being modeled in the experiment?
chemical weathering
Where is cP located?
It is located in Canada and Alaska.
Where is mT located?
It is located in warm waters such as Florida.
A tornado watch or warning is issued for a location labeled Tornado Alley
below ground
A river’s current carries sediements into the ocean. Which sediment also will most likely be deposited in deeper water farthest from the shore?
clay
The main function of the instrument is to measure which weather variable?
Wind direction — wind wane
What is used to measure wind speed?
anemometer
Where do most earthquakes and volcanoes OCCUR?
Pacific Ring of Fire which is located in the PACIFIC OCEAN, JAPAN, CHILI.
How did the Hawaiian Islands?
Formed due to hot spots.
Which sequence of geologic processes best describes the events that created the land scape?
erosion, subsidence and deposition, uplift and faulting
Many of the biomes that exist on Earth can be found in the western parts of N.C. What is the primary reason for the existence of such a wide range of biomes in this area?
the wide range of altitudes of the mountains
What is biotic factor?
living factor
What is abiotic factor?
nonliving factor
What types of crops are grown in the Coastal Plain?
Peanuts are used to put the nitrogen back into the soil
What types of crops are found in the Sandhills?
peach trees
Why is biodiversity essential?
food, clean air, medicines, beauty,
How is biodiversity essential to the environment?
Biodiversity adds to the aesthetical value of the environment and increases the amount of genetic material in the en.
Which human activity would be most destructive to the biodiversity of the biosphere?
the removal of plants from the food webs they support
Which alternative energy technology could take advantage of land and sea breezes in coastal North Carolina?
wind farms
Why should the farming industry adopt sustainable agricultural practices?
to reduce the environmental degradation and economic losses
Which change would most likely occur as a result of rapid increases in the global population?
There would be a high depend for limited natural resources
Why would citizens be advised to recycle plastic products?
because the products are not biodegradable and would therefore accumulate.
What is non-renewable resource?
is a natural resource which cannot be reproduced, grown, generated, or used on a scale which can sustain its consuption
Name some alternative energy resources?
wind power, solar panels, hydroelectricity, biomass, nuclear energy
Explain why New York usually gets more snow than Canada when the wind is blowing in the direction shown on the map?
The air travels over Lake Ontario towards Oswego, picking up moisture that results in more snow.
The air over Toronto contains less moisture. Lake effect storms occur on the eastern side of the lake when the wind is blowing in that direction.
Compared to the average winter air temperature in Watertown, New York, explain why the average winter air temperature in Old Forge, New York is colder?
Old Forge is located in the mountains.
Higher elevations have colder temperatures. Watertown is closer to a large body of water that moderates the temp.
Explain why the surface of Lake Erie freezes much later in the winter than the resulting land surfaces?
Water takes a longer time to cool than land. Land surfaces cool faster.
What evidence shows on the graph that city X is located in the southern hemisphere?
Its coldest months in June and July