Study Guide Chapter 17

What produces a variety of weather ?
Combination of Earth’s motions and energy from the sun
What is climate based on ?
Climate is based on observations of weather that have been collected over many years. Climate helps describe a place or region.
What is air a mixture of ?
Air is a mixture of different gases and particles each with its own physical properties. The composition of air varies from time to time and place to place
What two gases make up 99 percent of dry air ?
Nitrogen and oxygen make up 99 percent of the volume of clean, dry air
What gas plays a significant role in heating the atmosphere ?
Carbon dioxide is an active absorber of energy given off by Earth. Therefore, it plays a significant role in heating the atmosphere
What is the source of all clouds and precipitation ?
Water vapor is the source of all clouds and precipitation. Like carbon dioxide, water vapor absorbs heat given off by Earth. It also absorbs some solar energy
What are some particles that remain suspended for long periods of time ?
Sea salts from breaking waves, fine soil blown into the air, smoke and soot from fires, pollen & microorganisms lifted by the wind, & ash & dust from volcanic eruption
When do oxygen atoms split into single atoms of oxygen ?
They split when they absorb ultraviolet radiation emitted from the sun
What does ozone absorb ?
Ozone absorbs harmful UV radiation from the sun. Our planet would be uninhabitable for many living organisms if ozone wasn’t there
What accounts for nearly half the primary pollutants by weight ?
Emissions from transportation vehicles
What are secondary pollutants ?
They are not emitted directly into the air. They form in atmosphere when reactions take place among primary pollutants and other substances
What are photochemical reactions ?
Reactions triggered by strong sunlight
What is atmosphere pressure ?
Atmosphere pressure is simply the weight of air above
How many layers is the atmosphere divided into ?
4
In what layer do most weather phenomena occur ?
Troposphere
Where does most energy that drives weather and climate come from ?
Sun
What crates winds and dives the ocean’s currents ?
It is the unequal heating of Earth that creates winds and drives the ocean currents. These movements transport heat from the tropics toward the poles in an attempt to balance energy differences. The results of these processes are the phenomena we call weather .
What is rotation ?
Rotation is the spinning of Earth about its axis. The axis is an imaginary line running through the north and south poles. Our planet rotates once every 24 hours, producing the daily cycle of daylight and darkness
What is revolution ?
Revolution is the movement of Earth in its orbit around the sun. Earth travels at nearly 113,000 kilometers per hour in an elliptical orbit about the sun
What are the degrees the Earth is tilted ?
23.5 degrees
What is length of daylight determined by ?
It is determined by Earth’s position in orbit.
What are the three mechanisms for energy transfer ?
Conduction, convection & radiation
What can radiate energy travel through ?
Radiant energy can travel through the vacuum of space
Do hot or cold objects radiate more energy ?
Hotter objects radiate more total energy per unit area than colder objects do
What is reflection ?
Reflection occurs when light bounces off an object. About 30% of the solar energy reaching the outer atmosphere is reflected back to space
Does land or water heat to higher temperature faster ?
Land heats more rapidly and to higher temperatures than water. Land also cools more rapidly and to lower temperatures than water. Temperature variations, therefore, are considerably greater over land than over water.
What is a coast called in which winds blow from the ocean onto the shore ?
Windward
What is albedo ?
Albedo is the fraction of the total radiation that is reflected by any surface. Many clouds have a high albedo and therefore reflect a significant portion of the sunlight that strikes them back to space
What does the extent of cloud cover influence ?
By reducing the amount of incoming solar radiation the maximum temperatures on a cloud -covered day will be lower than on day when the clouds are absent and the sky is clear.

At night, clouds have the opposite effect. Clouds act as a blanket by absorbing outgoing radiation emitted by Earth and reradiating a portion of it back to the surface. Thus cloudy nighttime air temperatures do not drop low as they would on a clear night. The effect of cloud cover is to reduce the daily temperature range by lowering the daytime maximum and raising the nighttime minimum .

What type of lines connects points of the same temperature ?
Isotherms