In this essay, concepts of health practice will be identified and evaluated. Then, the use of Beattie’s work with contemporary health promotion will be further discussed in the succeeding pages. Also, Gibbs reflective model will help identify an incident that I personally experienced in an operating room at a local hospital.
Once, a wrong site surgery on the patient was avoided on the last minute, hence, leaving the patient unharmed and safe. Through this experience, I will essentially cover the most important elements and researches for wrong site surgery.
What is health?
Health is something similar to an enigma. Like the proverbial elephant, it is difficult to define but easy to spot once we see it. ‘You look well’ stands as a common greeting to a friend or a relative who appears relaxed, happy and buoyant. Any deliberation on the term, however, immediately reveals its complexity.
The idea of health explains its wide and narrow application, and can be negatively and positively defined. We can be in between good health and poor health. Moreover, health is not just a feature of our daily life; it also appears frequently on the political landscape (Bury 2005).
According to the World Health Organization (WHO), health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being, not merely the absence of disease or infirmity.
Health is a metabolic efficiency while sickness is a metabolic inefficiency. Nobody is totally healthy or totally sick. Each of us is a unique combination of health and sickness with a distinctive combination of abilities and disabilities, both emotional and physical (organicMD 2008).
A lay perspective on health.
The gap which may exist between how doctors and people think in general is the relevant focus of interest and concern. So are the differences in the words used by professionals and other people to express health (Horder 1988).
In 1997 – 2000, Tidsskrift (2001) conducted a study on how people identify the concept of health. Eighty persons aged 16 – 93 years were invited to a qualitative interview taken on five different locations in Norway. Included in the material was a group of former and present top athletes.
They identified six essential elements in people’s conceptualization of health: well-being, function, nature, sense of humour, coping, and energy. The lay perspective on health is characterized by three qualities:
Wholeness. Health is a holistic phenomenon. It is related to all aspects of life and society.
Pragmatism. Health is a relative phenomenon. It is experienced and evaluated according to what people find reasonable to expect, given their age, medical condition and social situation.
Individualism. Health is a personal phenomenon. Every human being is unique. Health and its strategies must be individualized.
Very accordant to an Arabic saying, “The health is a crown on the heads of healthy people. No one can see it except patients”. I believe this maxim explains that it is difficult to define some thing one cannot see.
What is Reflection?
Reflection was first proposed as an essential learning tool in the late 1970s. It has been a popular topic of research ever since. A definition of reflective learning is “the process of internally examining and exploring an issue of concern, triggered by an experience, which creates and clarifies meaning in terms of self and which results in a changed conceptual perspective” (Student BMJ).
As with other aspects of life, we all have our preferred way to reflect (even if we are not aware of it). Below are a number of different approaches to reflection.
Question-based reflection tends to match with people who are analytical, and who prefer to work in an orderly manner. This can also be for people who are neither controlled nor orderly but prefers structures to help them compose their thoughts.
This approach appears to be unstructured, but if it suits you, then there are a number of steps that will help you clarify your thinking. With this approach, you don’t concentrate and focus, as what the question-based approach implies, but rather ‘go with the flow’ and see what comes out.
This approach develops the styles outlined above. It is useful if you wish to identify competencies, personal development etc. As part of this module, you are required to reflect on your personal development. Below are some suggestions for how to notice and record that development.
Different Strategies in Contemporary Health Promotion
According to Public Health Annual Report 1999/2000 NHS, the theory and practice of community development are not new but recent work has been tried to establish its effectiveness, and to identify models which can be widely implemented. Guidelines for sustainable community development have been developed in Bedfordshire, and are being conducted locally and in other districts of UK.
Growing interest in community development approaches reflect a national shift on emphasis in strategies for health promotion. These strategies separate them from the directive approaches addressing to individual health-related lifestyle towards a more negotiated approach to collective risks and interventions.
Wrong site surgery
How Wrong Site Surgery Happen?
As Scheidt (2002) points out, Wrong Site Surgery happens due to the negligence of its operation surgeon and staff. Though many policies came out, there are still unforeseen errors that the surgeon might perform on the operation, specifically the wrong site surgery.
The real fact lies that sometimes policies are not followed accurately and promptly. Likewise, policies may be unsuccessful if they do not include all necessary rudiments to guarantee effectiveness. The following paragraphs show factors that increase the risk of wrong site surgery to a far extent.
Common errors like wrong site surgery can happen for some reasons. One of which is the absence of any relative who will identify the exact part of the body which will be under surgery. Such absence or failure cause more harm on the patient. Although, the presence of a family member is important in identifying the exact site for surgery, miscommunication among the medical staff, family member and the patient as well could be a major cause for the error. Likewise, communication among the medical staff could also be a probable cause thus; their conversation should be accurate and clear to avoid possible mistakes.
The surgeon, who should have the know-how for the operation itself, has to be the one who will determine the exact surgical site. But having more surgeons to work on the operation could complicate the case. Also, having an inadequate time for evaluating the patient’s case resulting to a miscalculation, and insufficient medical review could also add to the error. In order to avoid this possible cause, medical records should be updated promptly.
Factors affecting time can also create errors. Hence, multiple operations should be done one at time to properly concentrate on the most affected part of the body because some implications may arise if multiple parts of the body are operated under one surgical encounter. The medical staff should also have ample time for every operation. Delay start should be avoided in order to finish the operation in a timely manner but must also avoid rushing to finish a surgery because this can add pressure an can even commit an error.
Also, accurateness as to the abbreviations, targeted site for operation, scribbled handwriting, patient’s physical features such as allergies and disabilities must be properly determined in order to have a smooth and successful operation. These can be achieved if appropriate and updated equipments in the Operating Room are provided. Preoperative Checklist is also needed to properly enumerate and verify the things that were accomplished and things that are still to be done.