Sustainability exam 3

Fundamental question of the Ecological Footprint
How many Earths are we using?
Fundamental question of the Mass Balance fo humanity
How much stuff is there?
Fundamental question of Planetary Boundaries study
What’s the safe amount of stuff we can use?
Fundamental question of Safe and Just Space for Humanity
How much stuff can we use and still have a safe and just society?
Relation between HDI and EF
as HDI increases, so does EF (trend)
SPeAR attempts to asses:
sustainability measures for
the built environment and
specific projects.
3 Dominant Topics of built systems
energy, transportation and built environment
2015 significant planetary boundary passed
400 ppm carbon dioxide in atmosphere for entire month
Average max CO2 concentration over past 800k years
250ppm
Average minimum CO2 concentration over past 800k years
200ppm
Renewable resource that provides greatest amount of energy
Biomass (55EJ)
Renewable resource that provides LEAST amount of global energy
Tidal (0.017EJ)
NON-renewable resource that provides greatest amount of energy
Petroleum (172EJ)
NON-renewable resource that provides LEAST amount of global energy
Nuclear (30EJ)
How many joules in an exajoule?
1×10^18 J
How much energy does humanity require annually
582 EJ
Technological energy
any energy beyond that which is used for subsistence
How much non-renewable energy must be replaced to power with world with only renewable sources?
368 EJ
Author of Reinventing Fire
Amory Lovins (founder of RMI)
Premise of Reinventing Fire
we can switch from non-renewable energy to renewable with an increase in economic activity, not a decrease
Benefits of switching USA from non-renewable to renewable
$5 trillion in savings, 158% GDP growth, 0% nuclear reliance
Developer of The Solutions Project
Mark Ruffalo
Goal of The Solutions Project
100% clean energy
IEA Global milestone for 2014
32 GT carbon emitted 2014 and 2013, 3% global economy growth
Fundamental question does the ecological footprint attempt to answer
how many earths are we using
what fundamental question does the mass balance of humanity attempt to answer
how much stuff is there
what is the fundamental question does the planetary boundaries study attempt to answer
whats the safe amount of stuff we can use
What fundamental question does the safe and just space of humanity attempt to answer
how much stuff can we use and still have a safe and just society
what is the relationship of the HDI and EF
as HDI increases, so does EF (trend)
What does the Sustainable Project appraisal routine attempt to assess
sustainability measure for the built environment and specific profects
3 dominant topics governing sustainability of built systems
energy, transportation and built environment
In February 2015, a significant planetary boundary was passed. What was it?
400 ppm carbon in atmosphere
how long has atmospheric CO2 been increasing?
industrial revolution (about 1960)
how long has detailed measurements of CO2 been conjuscted
about 1960
who initiated detailed measurements of atmospheric CO2
Keeling
average max atmospheric CO2 concentration during the last 800,000 years
250
average min atmosphereic CO2 concentration during the last 800,000 years
200
which renewable energy resource provides the greatest quantity of energy annually
Biomass (55EJ)
which renewable energy resource provides the least quantity of energy annually
tidal (0.017EJ)
which non-renewable energy resource provides the greatest quantity of energy annually
petroleum (172EJ)
which non-renewable energy resource provides the least quantity of energy annually
nuclear (30EJ)
how large is a exajoule
1×10^18 joules
how many EJ does humanity require annually
582 EJ
what is technological energy
any energy beyond that which is used for substance. Beyond what calories you burn just to stay alive
how much energy form non-renewable sources must be replaced in order to power the world with renewable sources
368 Ej
who wrote reinventing fire
Lovins
what benefits derive form transisitioning out national energy use to renewable sources
better for the economy (5trillion in savings, 158% growth in GDP, and 0% nuclear power reliance)
who is the developer of “the solutions project”
Mark Ruffalo (IEA)
what is the goal of the solutions project
100% clean, renewable energy
What was the global milestone in 2014 and what was the significance
We made economic process without increasing emissions
what are the major fuel sources available to the global transportation system
Fundamental question does the ecological footprint attempt to answer
how many earths are we using
3 most important fuel sources for transprotation
gas, diesel, jet
what do gas, diesel and jet have in common
all petroleum based, non-renewable
Modes of transportation worldwide
LDV, Train, truck, bus, aviation, marine
dominant mode of transprotation
LDV
transportation mode that uses greatest quantity of global energy resources
LDV
what happened to global population between 1971-2007
doubled
what happened to global transportation energy used between 1971-2007
tripled
average growth rate of transportation energy growth during 1971-2007
2.5%
what proportion of total energy use was transportation energy in 2012
19%
how does US transportation energy relate to global transportation energy
use a little more LDV than global average
proportion of US energy use is its transportation energy use
28%
What are LDVs
light duty vehicle
top 3 transposition used in US
LDV, trucks& busses, off-road/aviation
with respect to transportation energy, what is biomass
primarily ethanol and biodiesel
main source of energy for US transportation
imported petroleum
other sources of energy for US transportation
petroleum for domestic oil, electricity, biomass, natural gas, other petroleum
US transportation system is used for
primarily used for moving people. Also used for moving stuff
what do following abbreviations stand for
Conv.
FFV
SI-HEV
SI-PHEV
BEV
FCV
Conventional
Flex Fuel Vehicle
Hybrid Electric Vehicle
Plugin Hybrid Electric Vehicle
Battery Electric Vehicle
Fuel Cell Vehicle
two largest costs in the US house hold
Housing and transportation
how do automobile costs differ from costs like education or homes
people usually dont have a good grasp on their total transportation costs, like they do on housing and education.
how much did costs of car ownership increase form 1975-2012
$6722
typical costs associated with car ownership
fuel, maintenance, tires, insurance, license, registration and taxes, depreciation, finance
doubling time of costs of car ownership form 1075-2012
17 years
what proportion of household income did a car cost in 1975 and in 2012
1975-4.7%
2012-17%
avg annual growth rate of pop. in NWA
2.8%
doubling time
70/%increase
avg. car ownership per household in NWA
1.9 (basically 2)
What % of household income is spent on transportation in NWA
29%
What % of household income is spent on housing in NWA
26%
Rule of thumb regarding household income proportion that should be paid for housing+transportation
shouldnt be above 45%
what % of NWA meets rule of thumb
11%
National Highway speed limit law
put national speed limit at 55mph in 1973. lower than before to save on fuel and make less crashes
When was national highway speed limit law repealed
1995. repealed bc GOP contract of america and people wanted to drive faster
technologies described by Lovins that would improve fuel efficiency
aerodynamic, lighter, advanced propulsion systems
advantages of challenging US car culture to improve sustainablitiy
cars are our primary source of energy consumption so the biggest amount of improvements can be met here
advantages of reduced highway speed limits
use less fuel, increase safety, reduce mechanical wear and tear on car, relieve congestion in cities and increase bikablitiy and walkabitiy
why is the built environment the largest footprint of humans on earth
buildings use raw materials, water, energy and land.
proportion of global raw materials go toward built enviroments
40
parts of the built environment footprint that are well documented and not well documented
well=energy use, waste and efficacy
no well= raw material, water and land
proportion of global energy used by buildings
34%
proportion of global energy used by industry
28%
proportion of global energy used by ag
11%
proportion of global energy used by transportation
27%
proportion of raw materials that goes toward buildings
40%
what is potable water?
water that you can drink
potable water used by buildings in US annually
15 trillion gallons per year (14% of all potable water)
proportion of total US energy used by buildings
42%
building sector that uses the greatest quantity of energy in US
HVAC heating, ventilation and air conditioning
what energy is used for in buildings (residential and commercial)
HVAC, lights, electronics and computers, water heating, fridge, cooking, other
significant gains in sustainability that can be achieved through reengineering the build enviroment
energy efficiency, sustainable renovation/retrofitting, materials and water efficiency
6 principles of sustainable design for buildings
optimize site selection, optimize energy use, protect and conserve water, optimize building safe and material use, enhance indoor environmental quality, optimize operations and maintenance practices
common principles for optimizing site selection for buildings
minimize development of open space, provide wildlife corridors, consider energy implications, control erosion, reduce heat islands, minimize habitat disturbance, reduce, control and treat surface runoff, restore degraded sites, incorporate transportation solutions, consider site security, and reduce light pollution
why does sight selection matter for built enviroment
influences building security, accessibility, energy consumption, transport to and from building, impacts local ecosystem and using existing structures
fundamental of energy optimization use to make buildings more sustainable
reduce heating, cooling and lighting loads, employ renewable energy sources, use efficient HVAC and lighting systems, employ energy modeling programs and optimize system controls, monitor project performance
methods used to conserve water in sustainable building designs
minimize runoff and waste water discharge, increase water efficiency, maximize use of water that is collected on site, use high efficiency fixtures, eliminate leaks, improve onsite water quality, consider quality requirements of each use, recover non-sewage and grey water for use.
functional concept behind optimizing building space and how its done
make building more sustainable. done by using materials that dont unnecessarily contribute to waste stream, use nontoxic materials, use materials from renewable resources, salvage and utilize existing facilities, products and equipment, optimize building size, use environmentally preferred products, max. recycled content of new materials, max. use of sustainably harvested material, limit construction and demolition waste, give preference to local products, think about waste recycling during design phase
how much of our lives do we spend indoors
90%
6 principles of sustainable design for buildings
optimize site selection, optimize energy use, protect and conserve water, optimize building safe and material use, enhance indoor environmental quality, optimize operations and maintenance practices
common principles for optimizing site selection for buildings
minimize development of open space, provide wildlife corridors, consider energy implications, control erosion, reduce heat islands, minimize habitat disturbance, reduce, control and treat surface runoff, restore degraded sites, incorporate transportation solutions, consider site security, and reduce light pollution
why does sight selection matter for built enviroment
influences building security, accessibility, energy consumption, transport to and from building, impacts local ecosystem and using existing structures
fundamental of energy optimization use to make buildings more sustainable
reduce heating, cooling and lighting loads, employ renewable energy sources, use efficient HVAC and lighting systems, employ energy modeling programs and optimize system controls, monitor project performance
methods used to conserve water in sustainable building designs
minimize runoff and waste water discharge, increase water efficiency, maximize use of water that is collected on site, use high efficiency fixtures, eliminate leaks, improve onsite water quality, consider quality requirements of each use, recover non-sewage and grey water for use.
functional concept behind optimizing building space and how its done
make building more sustainable. done by using materials that dont unnecessarily contribute to waste stream, use nontoxic materials, use materials from renewable resources, salvage and utilize existing facilities, products and equipment, optimize building size, use environmentally preferred products, max. recycled content of new materials, max. use of sustainably harvested material, limit construction and demolition waste, give preference to local products, think about waste recycling during design phase
how much of our lives do we spend indoors
90%
primary concern with indoor env. quality
air quality, aesthetics, ergonomics, acoustics, lighting, and electromagnetic frequencies
volatile organic compounds
naturally occurring gasses or vapors that may be toxic to humans
How are VOCs managed in indoor spaces
keep good ventilation, and use VOC free materials
sick building systems
illness effecting workers in office buildings that includes rash, headaches and breathing issues that results from being inside a place with bad env. quality
how is indoor env. quality improved
have windows that can open, use VOC free materials, value aesthetic decisions, provide thermal comfort, prevent airborne bacteria, mold, fungi, and radon, assure acoustic privacy, control disturbing odors, create high performance, luminous env. and provide quality water
long term health effects of working in buildings with poor indoor env. quality
sick building syndrome, depression
building life cycle
50 to 60 years
most energy intensive portion of building life cycle
operation and maintenance
how does sustainable design enhance operations efficiency
makes it easier and cheaper
how does sustainable design enhance building maintenance practices
train occupants, managers and staff in sustainable methods, use ecofriendly cleaning products, use automated monitors for utilities, provide operation support, engage occupants through education, clear signage, and insinuative programs, hire certified energy manager, use integrated pest management