Take the Expressway to go Greener
Abstract—This paper describes the use of “Flash
based” MCUs that enables the emerging MCU products most importantly smart
controllers to control devices such as motors to reduce the power consumption
and also reduces the emission of CO2 in some devices effectively and efficiently.
MCU products do operate even without a battery and they can provide control
over cooperative control environments with the help of power derived from the
power harvesters as the world now demands for greener products and innovative
power reduction technologies also desire for MCUs.
Nowadays the main concern of the world is
to have advancement in technology without compromising with the greener
environment, hence this increases the demand of low power consuming equipment
that motivates greener society. All the fields such as infrastructure,
computer, medical and many do prefer to use energy and power efficient devices
that are ecofriendly and motivates a low carbon society. Various industry nowadays
taking initiatives for green cars, eco-friendly products, solar power
generation and many more. The demands of such devices that reduces the CO2 emission
and power consumption is increasing day by day and because this the wind power
and solar power are accelerating. The European Commission(EU) introduced a new
energy-label layout that extended efficiency of the energy in the electronics
products. Many vehicles such as Hybrid Electric Vehicles(HEVs) are also fuel
efficient hence contributing towards
reducing the emission of CO2 and moving a step towards a greener earth because
everyone desires eco-friendly products that is power and energy efficient.
II. Microelectronics going Green
Introduced in early 70s, the
microcontrollers were first use in electronic calculators and it was later
evolved into electro-mechanical. Then the advancement in the electronics field
introduced microprocessors and then MCUs that is Microcontrollers for embedded
controls that are less commonly known semiconductor device that reduces the
energy monitoring and also do control the consumption of energy. In embedded
applications there is a wide acceptance of MCUs because of its ease of use, low
power, being small in footprint, adequate performance and low cost. In vehicles
also, we find MCUs that controls engine and HVAC and so on.
There is a wide
acceptance of MCUs because of its self-containment and availability and ease of
use. MCU is tiny piece of silicon that has been integrated with everything. MCUs
have a strength in its programmability that is through on-board flash memory
but the introduction of Flash-based MCUs made their programmability at low power
within a very small foot print.
III. green control
Many researchers and analyst found that
the motors that are used in washing machine, refrigerator, heat pumps,
railroads, subways and so on do consume maximum electricity around 60% of the
total power consumption. In the place of these motors we can use MCU that can
control the motors effectively and can minimize the power consumption. The MCU
can also control signal processing vector and inverter. This is because the MCU
directs the power devices regarding the current supply. Use of MCUs in devices
saves around 30% of the total electricity. But along with the issue of
electricity consumption problem, there is also a problem of CO2 emission. Many
large industries have made strict regulations regarding this issue. So, the
technologies should be according to it.
MCU is the device that support such
technologies that can reduce the emission of CO2. MCU has developed a system
called flash Based MCUs that are evolving year by year. Also, there has been a
huge and remarkable progress in HEVs and EVs technologies that are contributing
to reduce the CO2 emission.
MCUs are used in these HEVs and EVs
technologies. MCUs saves power through their widespread use and hence do serve
as a core technology for which everything is going green.
achievement of low power consumption by MCUs, these MCUs are also used in
connecting various devices. Lin is also that kind of device that uses low-end
MCUs and provides cost-effective networking solution to support LIN protocol. LIN
(Local Interconnect Network) are used in sensors such as rain sensor, switches,
light sensor and many more and is a sub-network of CAN (Controller Area
Network) which is an asynchronous in-vehicle-bus network.
CRITICAL FOR GREEN
We use motors in
many applications. These motors consume a lot of power and energy. MCUs can
control such motors by inverter control and many more. MCU controls the power
device to supply current to motors. There has been a remarkable progress in the
HEVs and EVs that are contributing towards a green society with low CO2 in the
surrounding. HEVs consumes power from a conventional internal combustion engine
along with an electric motor whereas EVs have no internal combustion engine.
Both have a special battery with large capacity specially lithium ion that can
MCUs used in HEVs
and EVs integrates the function of motor control and also regeneration control
where by motor control MCU provides motive power for 3-phase motor through
pre-drivers and IGBTs and control regeneration by the motor that acts as a
generator that converts mechanical energy into electricity Thus MCU saves a lot
of power by their wide spread applications.
The advancement of
MCUs have led the industries towards the use of smart microcontrollers and
thus, helped in reducing the power consumption and providing high performance.
The applications of MCUs are increasing so rapidly that in future it would
become a major part of the finely-meshed network all over the world. MCUs provided
the way for a smart controller that paves the way to a greener society.
We are very thankful to Dr.
Ramesh Vaddi, Assistant Professor, ECE, IIIT-NR, and the teaching assistant,
Mr. Aditya Japa, for their immense support and help towards achieving the
results of our project
The project report was prepared with the
help of references of some IEEE papers, conferences and journals along with
some websites that have been listed down as follows: