Autism is a complex developmental disorder of brain functioning accompanied by a broad range and severity of symptoms of behavioral and intellectual deficits. Commonly manifested during early childhood and through early detection and highly individualized treatment could be improved. Prevalence of this disorder shows that occurrences are more common in males but the degree of severity of complications is more debilitating for girls.Overgrowth of the brain or is termed hyperplasia, which can be observed clinically as a sudden increase in head size between 1-2 months and 6-14 months of age.
This symptom has been a pertinent observation among all of children diagnosed with autism (Yeargin-Allsopp, Akshoomoff and Lainhart, 2003).The etiology of autism is idiopathic; however many theories, mostly biological and genetic in nature support some of the cases reported. Evidence had also been documented suggesting that twins remains parallel with an autosomal-recessive pattern of inheritance. Studies conducted among twins show va ery high percentage in concordance; that is, 96% for identical twins and 24% concordance for nonidentical twins.
In addition, about 5%-18% of males diagnosed with autism are surprisingly positive for Fragile X chromosome. There is a danger of recurrence in families already having a child with autism, with the percentage falling between 10%-20 % (Filipek et al, 2000). Despite all the genetics-based theories, there is no gene that is directly associated with autism.There are also theories that were not able to provide sufficient and substantial evidence for their claims; for instance, the involvement of the MMR vaccine in contracting the condition which is now considered a fallacy (DeStefano, et al, 2004; Dales, Hammer, and Smith, 2001). However, there is about a minimal percentage of a number of conditions (less than 4%) associated with autism, and these include Fragile X Syndrome, Tuberous Sclerosis, Fetal Rubella Syndrome, Haemophilus Influenza, Meningitis and Structural brain anomalies (Smalley et al, 2000).Generally speaking, autism is just one type of disorder that falls under the modified term now accepted by mental health professionals known as the Autism Spectrum Disorders and/or Pervasive Developmental Disorder.
As it implies, this group of disorders often cause a marked abnormality in the stages of development a normal infant/child must undergo. There is a delay in the supposed milestones that every child must go through.The conditions that fall under the category of Pervasive Developmental Disorders include Rett Syndrome, Childhood Disintegrative Disorder, and Fragile X Syndrome. The most severe form of Pervasive Developmental Disorder is called the Autistic Disorder, while the milder form is called Asperger Syndrome. Meanwhile, the rarest of all the cases is the Rett Syndrome (Smalley et al, 2000).A Brief Description on Rare Autism Spectrum DisordersRett SyndromeA rare disorder under the Autism Spectrum, the incidence of this disease is only 1 out of 14,000-15,000 children.
Exclusively categorized as a disorder occurring on girls by which there is a disruption in the development. On the first 6 months of the child, brain activities, executed as motor responses occur normally; however, between 6-18 months symptoms that mimic those of the Autistic Disorder suddenly appear. The child stops to respond to those persons she formerly responds to and stops talking.Therefore, it may be objective to describe the condition as an interruption in development. Some of the motor abnormalities include the inability to control the feet and also twisting of one’s own arms. Management should include speech therapy, physical rehabilitation to control coordination and correct motor abnormalities.A recent breakthrough however brought about the knowledge that mutation of one specific gene can cause Rett Syndrome.
This finding has now given a slight control on improvement of children having this disease.By using these doctors can now slow down the progression of the condition or carry out studies on how to delay onset and to investigate means on how to elimiate it. Some could actually use this to link the condition with other biological factors or probably genetic incidences influenced by the parents (Yeargin-Allsopp et al, 2003).