Test 1

Angiosperms
Flowering plants (seeds enclosed in a fruit). Most abundant/diverse group of plants– 250,000 plants)
Gymnosperms
Lack flowers but produce seeds (naked seeds). Ex: conifers, ginkgoes
Monocotyledons
Contain one cotyledon. Contain/transport nutrients beneath ground, absording from endosperm (starchy food supply)
Dicotyledons
Emerge above ground and function initially as leaves, photosynthesizing and  eventually withering away
Biennial
Requires all or part of 2 years to complete its life cycle
Herbaceous
Has leaves and stems that die at the end of the growing season to the soil leve. Below soil the rest survive
Woody
Stems above ground remain alive during winter and grow shoots the next years from the above ground parts
Grass
Common word describing a monocot green plant in the family Graminae. Can also describe several other plants
Forb
Flowering plant with a non-woody stem. Isn’t a shrub or tree either. Most plants are these
Tree
Large perennial woody plant, larger than a shrub
Shrub
Multiple stems at ground level. Usually less than 5-6 meters. Large number of plants can be either these or trees. Particularly true in areas of low rainfall or due to soil conditions
Vine
Any plant of genus Vitus or any similar climbing or trailing plant. Modified stems, originally from Latin referring to grapes
Plasma or cell membrane
Protective, flexible layers that surrounds the cytoplasm
Cell wall
All plants have these, there are primary and secondary that develop for support, protection or water transport
Cell wall
All plants have these, there are primary and secondary that develop for support, protection or water transport
Nucleus
Genetic material is located here
Chloroplasts
Where the process of photosynthesis primarily takes place
Mitochondria
Breakdown of carbs and sugar molecules to produce chemical energy in the form of ATP in the process of respiration takes place here
Dermal tissue
Plant’s protective outer coating in contact with the outer environment
Vascular tissue
consists of phloem and xylem
Xylem
Transports water from root up to plant
Phloem
Concerned with transport of starch for the process of photosynthesis
Ground tissue
Diversity of functions, production and storage of food, packing and support
Terminal bud
Where the continued vertical growth will occur
Auxiliary bud
Where flowers or branches grow
Roots
Three universal functions: anchorage, absorption and translocation of water with dissolved mineral nutrients
Tap root systems
Form from one primary root which then form lateral systems
Fibrous root systems
Most have a single radicle and then other embryonic roots form, creating seminole roots
Meristem
At tip of root, manufactures new cells, area of cell division
Zone of elongation
Cells increase in size, behind meristem
Zone of maturation
Beneath stem, cells become specific tissues
Root’s epidermis
Outermost layer, responsible for absorption
Root cap
Most outermost tip. Cells are sloughed off as root grows through soil, protects meristem
Monocot roots
Vascular bundles arranged in a ring. Dicot roots have their xylem in the center of their root and phloem outside the xylem
Sweet potatoes
Most plants have roots that store some food, but some roots are enlarged and store large quantities
Adventitious roots
Originate on leaves and stems. Ex: young corn plants, prop roots develop on the stem, just above the ground
Distinctions in vascular tissues
Monocots have vascular tissues in bundles throughout the stem, dicot vascular bundles are arranged in rings
Stem
Divided into nodes and internodes. Nodes hold buds which grow into leaves, flowers, cones, etc.
Shoot system
Stems and leaves. Stems contain vascular system
Stolons/runners
Aboveground horizontal stems. At each node on the stolon, a root and a bud will sprout to make a new plant
Rhizomes
Underground stems. Modified stems, have internodes and nodes. Buds underneath soil extend to surface and form new plants
Tubers
Enlarged terminal portions of underground rhizomes
Corm
Short, thickened underground stem with thin, papery leaves. Central part accumulates stored food. Ex: banana
Bulb
Food stored in specialized fleshy leaves. Stem portion is small, has at least one terminal bud. Ex: onion
Leaves
Primary photosynthetic organs. Most contain a stalk (petiole) and a blade
Simple leaves
Leaves with a single blade. Leaf margins may be entire (smooth), toothed or lobed, oval, etc.
Compound leaves
Blade forms seven separate units/leaflets
Palmately compound
Diverge from a single point
Pinnately compound
Leaflets arranged along an axis
Photosynthesis
The process by which plants use light energy to make food molecules from carbon dioxide and water
Calvin Cycle (C3)/dark reactions
It is here that carbon dioxide reactions with/is catalyzed with another enzyme, resulting in a 3 carbon compound
Respiration
Utilization of simple sugars for the production of energy that can be stored to do work. Occurs in mitochondria, results in release of carbon dioxide
Net photosynthesis
Photosynthesis minus respiration
Diffusion
The tendency for particles to spread out spontaneously from where they are CONCENTRATED to where they are LESS CONCENTRATED
Transpiration
The loss of water from the inside of the leaf to the atmosphere through the stomata. Rate is affected due to the number of stomata that are open and how dry the air is (the diffusion gradient)
Relative humidity/saturation vapor pressure
Equilibrium is reached when the number of water molecules leaving the water surface equals the number of molecules returning to the water surface (condensation). The pressure (water condensation of air) is the saturation of vapor pressure
Relative humidity
Actual vapor pressure divided by saturation vapor pressure all multiplied by 100
Dew point
When actual vapor pressure and saturation vapor pressure are the same
Water-use efficiency
Difference in the concentration of carbon dioxide in the leaf and the outside air. Rate of carbon dioxide uptake divided by the rate of water loss
Environmental constraints on photosynthesis
Light (light saturation point, light compensation point– the point at which light supportant enough photosynthesis to just offset respiration)
C4 photosynthesis cycle
Much more efficient photosynthesis (more efficient in converting carbon dioxide into simple sugars).
Water-use efficiency
How much carbon dioxide do you turn into simple sugars per unit of water lost?
Crassulacean acid metabolism
Their photosynthesis process happens in night and day. Take in CO2 at night through stomata and during day, they close stomata and convert CO2. They minimize water loss because relative humidity/temperatures are lower at night.
Flower
Reproductive organ consisting of 4 organs: sepal, petal, stamen, pistil (one or more carpel)
Penducle
End of a flower stalk. Enlarges to form a receptacle that bears some or all of the flower parts
Carpels
Can make up a pistil by combining or individual
Simple pistil
Consists of a single carpel
Compound pistil
Has two united carpels
Inflorescence
Peduncle terminates in a cluster of flowers
Incomplete flower
If a flower is missing any of the four parts
Perfect
Flower contains both functional stamens and pistils (involved in seed production)
Pistillate flowers
Possess functional pistil/pistils but no stamens
Staminate flowers
Contain stamens but no pistils
Monoecious
Separate male and female flowers on the same plants
Dioecious
Species have separate male and female plants
Cross-pollination
Pollination between different plants of the same species
Pericarp
Fruit wall developing from ovary (exocarp, mesocarp, endocarp)
Accessory
Tissues other than ovary wall in the fruit
Simple fruit
Majority of fruit. Develop from a single carpel/several fused carpel. Fleshy or dry– berry or drupes
Berry
Fleshy fruit with soft tissues and few-many seeds. Ex: tomato, grape, blueberry
Pepo
Modified berry, fruit wall is a leathery rind. Ex: pumpkin, squash
Hesperidium
Modified berry, leathery fruit wall with numerous oil glands surrounding cavities where seeds are stored. Ex: citrus fruits
Drupe
Simple, fleshy fibrous fruit that contains a hard stone surrounding a single seed. Ex: peaches, cherries, avocado
Dehiscent
Simple fruit that splits open along structure to release seeds
Follicle
Simple fruit that splits along one suture to release seeds. Ex: milkweed
Legume
Splits along 2 sutures to release seeds (top and bottom). Ex: peas
Capsule
Simple, dry fruit that splits along multiple sutures or pores. Ex: poppy
Indehiscent
Don’t split open at maturity. Caryopses and grains are examples. Each contain a single seed. Ex: corn kernels and wheat
Nuts
Simple, dry fruits that have a store wall (endocarp) and don’t split open at maturity. Peanuts are seeds, not nuts.
Achene
Simple and dry, don’t split open at maturity, contains a single seed. Seed coat isn’t fused to seed wall. Achene can be separated from seed wall
Aggregate fruit
Formed from a single flower that contains several separate free carpels. Post-fertilization, each carpel enlarges and may fuse to form a single fruit. Ex: raspberries
Multiple fruit
Forms from the carpels of many flowers that grow close to one another on a common flower stalk (inflorescence). Carpels from each flower fuse with nearby carpels as they develop and enlarge. Flowers fusing v. carpels fusing
Accessory fruit
Differ in that other plant tissues in addition to the ovary tissue make up the plant. Each tiny “seed” on a strawberry is actually a fruit–an achene–containing a tiny seed
Adaptations
Products of genetics and environment
Homozygous
If the two alleles at any given locus are the same (from the mother and the father)
Chromosome
Genes are arranged in linear order. Genes are a stretch of DNA coding
Phentotype
Outward appearance of an organism for a given characteristic (externally observable)
Phenotype plasticity
The ability for different phenotypic expressions of the same genotype under different environment conditions. Ex: hydrangea flowers of blue-purple to pink in different soil conditions
Norm of reaction
Set of phenotypes expressed by a genotype in different environments
Complete dominance
The heterozygous individual expresses the same phenotype as one of the homozygotes
Incomplete dominance
Heterozygous individual is intermediate between the homozygous types
Gene pool
Sum of all the genetic information across all the individuals in the population
Allele frequency
Proportion of an allele at a locus in the population
Genotype frequency
Genotypes (proportion) at a locus. Genetic makeup of a population won’t change over time, but the genotypes and phenotypes will
Polyploid
Cells and organisms that contain more than 2 paired (homologous) sets of chromosomes. Most are diploid (two chromosome sets) but some have 3 plus) which can result in larger fruit