Test 1

enviroment

living and non-living things around us

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ex. clouds, animals, buildings

enviromental science
the systematic study of our enviroment and our place in it
natural resources
various substances and energy sources the we need to survive or enhance our lives
renewable resources

natural resources that are relenished over periods of time

ex. sun, wind, tides, timber, soil

nonrenewable resources

resources that are not replenished

ex. iron, aluminum, copper, coil

ecological footprint
expresses impact of an individual in land or water required to provide the raw materials the person consumes
science

A systematic process for learning the world and testing our understanding of it.

Accumulated body of knowledge that results from a dynamic process of oberservation, testing, and discovery.

matter
all materials in universe that have mass and occupies space.
elements

fundamental type of matter, chemical subtace with given set of properites.

cannot be broken down to simpiler substance.

ex. nitrogen, oxygen, gold

compounds

a molecule composed of 2 or more different elements in a definite ratio.

ex. water H2O

mixtures

is matter that consists of 2 or more substances that are physically mixed but not chemically bound.

Can be seperated by physical methods.

Can be homogenous or heteregenous.

homogenous mixture

compoud is uniform throughout and different parts are not visable.

ex. the oceans

heterogeneous mixtures
the composition is not uniform and varies visually and physically throughout
atom

smallest particle of matter that retains it’s properties.

tiny particles that make up matter.

atoms of the some element are identical.

when 2 or more combine they form compounds.

contain subatomic particles.

atomic number
atomic number

Is equal to the # of protons in an element.

Is the same for all atoms of an element.

different for different elements.

appears above the symbol of an element.

;

mass number

represents # of particles in the nucleus.

is equal to the number of protons and nuetrons.

protons+neutrons=mass #

isotope
atoms that have the same # of protons but different # of neutrons.
radioactive

isotopes stabilize itself by emitting energy.

the isotopes that emit energy are called radioactive.

ion

when an atom gains or losses electrons.

becomes electronically charged because protons and electrons are no longer equal

+ charged: cations

– charged: anions

ionic compounds

consists of positive and negative ions.

attractions is called ionic bonds.

covalent compound

form when atoms share electrons to complete on octet.

between 2 non-metal atoms.

forms molecules

chemical change
reacting substances form new substances with different compositions and properties, a chemical reaction takes place.
physical change

the identity and composition of the substances do not change.

ex. freeze water to make ice.

chemical reaction

a chemical change forms 1 or more new substances.

Theres a change in compostion of one or more substances.

conservation of mass

closed system.

cannot be created or distroyed.

kinetic energy

energy contained in moving objects.

ex. rock rolling

potential energy

stored energy that is latent but available for use

ex. rock on top of a hill

first law of thermodynamics
energy is conserved
second law of thermodynamics
each successive enegy transfer in a system, the less energy is available to do work.
system
a network of relationships among a group of parts or components that interact with and influence each other through the exchange of energy, matter or information.
open systems
can exchange matter and energy with thier surroundings.
closed systems

do not exchange matter or energy with thier surroundings.

ex. the universe

photosynthesis

converts radiant energy into useful high quality chemicals energy in bonds hold together organic molecules.

chlorplasts

biomass
biological materials
acids
substances that readily give up hydrogen ions in water are known as acids
bases
Substances that readily bond with hydrogen ions are called bases or alkaline substances.
buffers
are substances that resist change in pH
Malthus

pop. growth must be controlled or it will over stripe food.

pop. will be controlled by starvation, war, disease.

neo-Malthus

pop. growth= disastrous effects.

agricultural advances have only postponed the problem

tragedy of the commons

Hardin says unregulated grazing will lead to no food production.

everyone will take many animals, not just one.

easter island

consumed more timber then land could be sustainable .

soil erosion.

people starved

Apo Island

rely on fish,

over fishing was distructive.

Marine sanctuary established

;

metals

shiny, ductile.

conduct heat and electricity

nonmetals

dull, brittle, poor conductors.

good insulators

metalloids

better conductors then nonmetals.

used as semi-conductors and insulators.

valence electrons

outter most electrons

group # = valence electrons

ex.1a=1 valence electron

heat
energy that can be transferred between objects of different temperatures.
organic compounds

carbon based molecules, where carbon is bonded directly to hydrogen

ex. sugar, starches, amino acids, fats