Test 1

What are the 3 Major Components of Wildlife Management
Populations [animal], People, and Habitat
What did the term “wildlife” originally refer to?
Only game birds and game mammals
What does the term “wildlife” refer to now?
Generally all vertebrates [game, non-game, and endangered] and sometimes invertebrates
What does the US Fish & Wildlife Service manage nationally?
Wildlife, plants, all endangered species and habitat
What are the two management groups in PA?
PA Game Commission & PA Fish & Boat Commission
What does the PA Game Commission manage?
birds & mammals
What does the PA Fish & Boat Commission manage?
fish, reptiles & amphibians, and invertebrates
Who manages freshwater fish nationally?
US Fish & Wildlife Service (Dept. of Interior)
Who manages marine fish nationally?
National Marine Fisheries Service (Dept. of Commerce)
What does anthropocentric mean?
What sparked the European Conservation Movement?
The auroch’s declining numbers. Land set aside for them but they died anyway. Now it’s a bison preserve
What spurred concern about wildlife conservation?
Extinctions in the late 1800s
What does commercially extinct mean?
Not viable to pursue commercially, as numbers are so low
Define Preservationist Ethic
The belief of spiritual and artistic value over exploitation for material needs. Nature has intrinsic value
Define Resource Conservation Ethic
The belief that there are humans and natural resources
Whatever furthers “the greatest good of the greatest number (of people) for the longest time”
Who had a preservationist ethic?
John Muir
Who had a resource conservation ethic?
Gifford Pinchot—first head of U.S. Forest Service had the opposing view
What two American philosophers greatly influenced thought in 1800s?
Ralph Waldo Emerson and
Henry David Thoreau
Who promoted sustainable use?
Gifford Pinchot
Who formed the principles of wildlife management?
Aldo Leopold
In what three ways did Roosevelt influence the history of game management?
1) Recognized landscapes, water, vegetation & animals as an ecosystem
2) Conservation through wise use
3) Science is the cornerstone of conservation
What combines Leopold and Pinchot’s views?
Ecosystem Management where the highest priority is maintaining species and ecosystems
Who developed evolutionary-ecological land ethic?
Aldo Leopold
What is evolutionary-ecological land ethic?
A middle ground between utilization and preservation that recognizes that nature as a landscape organized as a system of interrelated processes
Who is the “Father of Wildlife Management”?
Aldo Leopold
What are the “Seven Sisters for Conservation”?
1) The Public Trust
2) Prohibition on Commerce of Dead Wildlife
3) Democratic Rule of Law
4) Hunting Opportunity for All
5) Non-frivolous Use
6) International Resources
7) Scientific Management
What was the 1st national park?
Who created the the National Wildlife Refuge System?
Teddy Roosevelt
What did the Lacey Act do?
Eliminates market hunting
What did the Migratory Bird Treaty Act do?
Migratory birds are not the property of any single country that they pass through
What did the Black Bass Act do?
Afforded protection for black bass and other game fish
What did the Animal Damage Act do?
Authority to control wildlife. Now Wildlife Services under APHS under USDA
What did the Fish and Wildlife Coordination Act do?
1) Allowed acquisition of areas for conservation
2) Requires COORDINATION between federal and state agencies
What did the Migratory Bird Hunting Stamp Act do?
Used funds of the stamp to buy habitat
What did the Magnuson Act do?
1) Separated commercial fisheries from USFWS into US Fisheries Commission
2) Management for commerce vs. conservation
What did the Pittman-Robertson Act do?
Funds obtained from taxes on sporting arms and ammunition for game restoration work
What did the Dingell-Johnson Act do?
Funds from taxes on fishing tackle allocated to sport fish restoration
Basic goals of wildlife management include one or more of the following:
1) Make population increase
2) Make population decrease
3) Harvest the population sustainably
4) Do nothing except monitor the population
What is Management?
Use of a resource and regulation
What is Conservation?
Use of a resource &/or preservation
What is Preservation?
leave nature alone, no use
What does Ecology mean?
“Study of Home”
What is an Ecosystem?
Network that interacts in a manner to sustain life, including two parts:
Biotic community (living part)
Abiotic (non-living)
What is a Community?
an identifiable association of plants and animals living in a finite physical environment (but boundaries are often hard to identify)
Each species in the community plays a role
What is included in the biosphere?
includes a few hundred meters below the ground to several kilometers into the atmosphere
What is a habitat?
An area with the combination of resources (food, cover, water) and environmental conditions (e.g. temp., precip.) that promotes residency by individuals of a given species and allows them to survive and reproduce.
What does “Habitat type” refer to?
A particular vegetative community (e.g. mixed deciduous forest)
What does Habitat selection refer to?
How elements of habitat resources are used in relation to their availability
What is a range of tolerance?
The physical and biological limits organisms can live within
What does steno- mean?
Narrow (eg: stenothermal is a narrow range)
What does eury- mean?
Broad (eg: eurythermal is a broad range)
What is a limiting factor?
Resource that may be in short supply and which limit the number of individuals
What is a niche?
Functional role and position of the organism in its community
What is niche separation?
When two animals live in the same area but use different resources
What is an ecological equivalent?
When there is another species that fills basically the same niche in a different area
What is convergent evolution?
Different ancestors produce species of similar appearance/niches, due to similar evolutionary forces
What is Niche Partitioning?
When two animals might use the same resources but at different times
What is Ecological succession?
When communities change in a sequential process
What is a Pioneer community?
The first step (i.e. plowed field or fire)
What is a Climax community?
The final step
What is Primary succession?
Occurs when there was no community before
What is Secondary succession?
Remnants remain of previous community
What are the four tools to set back succession?
Ax, Cow, Match & Plow
What does Diversity refer to?
Number of species
What does Stability refer to?
Relative constancy of the abundance of population
What is a Symbiotic Relationship?
Close relationship between 2 or more unrelated organisms
Who benefits in mutualism?
Both parties
What does Obligate mutualism refer to?
Required for survival for one or both
What does Facultative mutualism refer to?
Not required for survival?
When does Polygyny occur?
Occurs when females defensible, so form harems
When does Polyandry occur?
Female has multiple mates (seen mostly in birds)
What is a peent (call) count?
A woodcock counting for males to estimate population size
What is a Territory?
Area DEFENDED against others of the same species, usually males
What is a Home range?
Area in which animal may LIVE
What is a Lek?
A gathering of males for the purposes of competitive mating display
What are Circadian rhythms?
Daily activity patterns
What are Circannual rhythms?
Yearly patterns
What are Ultradian rhythms?
Patterns of less than a day
What is Innate Dispersal?
When young leave home range in which they were reared
What is Environmental Dispersal?
Behavioral response to environmental stresses
What does Philopatric mean?
Home loving aka they stay close to where they were born
What does Allopatric mean?
Dispersing away from parents
Where do Anadromous fish live and breed?
Live in saltwater, breed in freshwater
Where do Catadromous fish live and breed?
Live in freshwater, breed in saltwater
What did the Urban Migratory Bird Treaty do?
Try to help out migrating birds by planting rooftop gardens, turning lights off, more native planting, less mowing, etc
What did the Ramsar Convention do?
Internationally protect wetland for waterfowl
What does the IUCN (International Union of Conservation and Natural Stuff)-World Conservation Union
Created the Red List which is determined by the SSC (Species Survival Commission)