Test #1- Lehr

Natural Resources
The various substances and energy sources we need to survive
Renewable natural resources
Natural resources that are replenished over short periods
nonrenewable resources
Resources, such as mineral ores or crude oil, that are in finite supply and are formed much more slowly than we use them.
Environment
Includes all living and nonliving things around us with which we interact
Agricultural Revolution
Transition from a hunter-gatherer lifestyle to an agricultural way of life
Industrial Revolution
Shift from rural life, animal-powered agriculture, and manufacturing by craftsmen to an urban society powered by fossil fuels
Fossil Fuels
nonrenewable resources such as oil, coal, and natural gas
Thomas Malthus
British economist that claimed that unless population growth was controlled, it would grow past the amount the earth could sustain. His best known work is An Essay on the Priciple of Populations
Garrett Hardin
Wrote “the tragedy of the commons”; suggested that managing resources only for self-interest is not good for the public interest
Ecological Footprint
Expresses the environmental impact of an individual or population in terms of the cumulative amount of biologically productive land and later required to provide the raw materials the person or population consumes and to dispose of or recycle the waste the person or population produces
overshoot
Using resourves faster than they are replinished.
Environmental science is an ______________ field.
Interdisciplinary; borrows techniques from numerous disciplines
Natural sciences
disciplines that study the natural world
Social sciences
discplines that study human interaction and institutions
Environmental studies
Programs that include social sciences as well as the natural science
Environmentalism
social movement dedicated to protecting the natural world
Environmentalism
social movement dedicated to protecting the natural world
Science
a systematic process for learning about hte world and testing our understanding of it.
Observational Science
types of research in which scientists gather basic information about organisms materials or processes that are not well known
Hypothesis-driven science
research that proceeds in a more structured manner, using experiements to test hypothesis within a framework traditionally known as the scientific method
Hypothesis
statement that attempts to explain an phenomenon or answer a scientfic that attempts to explain a phenomenon or answer a scientific question
Hypothesis
statement that attempts to explain an phenomenon or answer a scientfic that attempts to explain a phenomenon or answer a scientific question
Theory
a widely accepted explanation of one or more cause-and-effect relationship that has been extensively tested with a great amount of research
Ethics
A branch of philosophy that involves the study of good and bad, of right and wrong
Relativists
ethicists that do and should vary with social context
universalists
Ethicists maintaining that there exist objective notions of right and wrong that hold across cultures and situations
Ethical Standards
criteria that help differentiate between right and wrong
Environmental Ethics
The application of ethical standards to relationships between humans and nonhuman entities
Anthropocentrism
a human-centered view of our relationship with the environment.
Biocentrism
ascribes value to certain living things or the the biotic realm in general
Ecocentrism
judges actions in terms of their effects on the whole ecological system
John Muir
Associated with the preservation ethic
Preservation Ethic
holds that we should protect our environment in a pristine, unaltered state
Gifford Pinchot
founded the US Forest Service with Theodore Roosevelt; associated with the conservation ethic
Conservation Ethic
hold that people should put natural resources to use but that we should use them in a responsible way
Aldo Leopold
known for “The Land Ethic”
Sustainability
living within out planet’s means such that Earth and its resources can sustain us
natural capital
Earth’s accumulated wealth of resources
Sustainable Development
the use of resources in a manner that satisfies our current nees but doesn’t compromise the future availabilty of resources
Economics
The study of how people decide to use scarce resources to provide goods and services in the face of demand for them
Subsistence economy
people meet most or all of needs directly from nature and do not purchase or trade for necessity
Capitalist Market Economy
Buyers and sellers interact to determine goods and services to produce, and how to distribute them
Centrally Planned Economy
government determines in a top-down manner how to allocate resources
Mixed Economies
a hybrid between socialist and capitalist economies
Ecosystem Services
Essential processes that support the life that makes our economic activity possible
Adam Smith
Father of classical economics
Cost-benefit analysis
Economists total up estimated costs for a proposed action and compare these to the sum of benefits estimated to result from the action
Nonmarket values
values not usually included in the price of a good or service
Rachel Carson
wrote Silent Spring, the first science book written in laymen’s terms
National Environmental Policy Agency
created an agency called Council on Environmental Qualities and required that an environmental impact statement be prepared for major federal actions
Environmental Impact Statement
report of results from studies that assess the potential impacts on the environment that would likely result from the development projects
Hypoxia
condition of having low levels of dissolved oxygen in water
System
network of relationships among components that interact with and influence each other through transfer of energy, matter of information
Feedback Loop
When a system’s output serves as an input in the same system
Negative Feedback Loop
Input and output neutralize each other and stablize the system
Positive Feedback Loop
Instead of stabilizing the system, the input and output drives the system to the extreme
Lithosphere
contains the rock and soil in the earth’s upper most layers
Atmosphere
Composed of the air around our planet
Hydrosphere
Encompasses all the water on Earth, in all forms
Eutrophication
The process of nutrient overenrichement, blooms of algae, increased production of organic matter, and subsequent ecosystem degradation
Matter
all material that has mass and takes up space
Law of conservation of Matter
Matter cannot be created or destroyed
Element
Chemical substance with a given set of properties that cannot be broken down into another substance
Isotopes
Atoms with differing numbers of neutrons
Hydrocarbons
consist solely of atoms of carbon and hudrogen; make up the fossil fuels
Three types of polymers
proteins, nucleic acids, and carbohydrates
Proteins
made up of long chains of organic molecules called amino acids
Nucleic acids
Direct the production of proteins; DNA and RNA carry hereditary information for organisms
Genes
Regions of DNA coding for particular proteins that perform particular functions
Carbohydrates
include simple sugars that are three to seven carbon atoms long
Lipids
chemically diverse group of compounds, classified together because they do not dissolve in water. Includes fats and oils, phospholipids, waxes, and steroids
Energy
an intangible phenomenon that can change the position, physical composition, or temperature of matter
Potential Energy
energy of position
Kinetic Energy
Energy of motion
Chemical Energy
potential energy that is held in the bonds between atoms
Autotrophs
green plants that turn light energy intto ehemical energy through photosynthesis
Photosynthesis Equation
6CO2 + 6H20 + the sunlight’s energy = C2H12O6 (sugar) + 602
Cellular Respiration Equation
C6H12O6 + 602 = 6CO2 + 6H20 + energy
Heterotrophs
consumers; organisms that gain their energy by feeding on other organisms
Ecosystem
consists of all organisms and non living entities that occur and interact in a particular area
Net Primary Production
Energy that remains after respiration is used to generate biomass
Net Primary Productivity
Occurs in ecosystems whose producers convert solar energy to biomass rapidly
biogeochemical cycles
Nutrients move through ecosystems in these cycles
nitrification
process of convertin ammonium ions first into nitrite ions then to nitrate ions
Nitrogen fixation
can be accomplished in two ways: by the intense energy of lightning strikes, or when air in the top layer of soil comes in contact with nitrogen-fixing bacteria
Natural Selection
process by which inherited characteristics that enhance survival and reproduction are passed on more frquently to future generations than those that do not, thus altering the genetic makeup of populations through time
Evolution
consists of genetic change in populations of organisms across generations
adaptive trait
A trait that promotes sucess
Mutations
Accidental alteration that arise during DNA replication
Artificial Selection
Process of selection conducted under human direction
Biological Diversity
refers to the sum total of all organisms in an area, taking into account the diversity of species, their genes, their populations, and their communities
Population
group of individuals of a particular species that live in the same area
Species
a particular type of organism or a populatin whoe members share certain traits and can freely breed with one another and produce fertile offspring
Speciation
process by which new species are generated
phylogenetic trees
branching, treelike diagrams that represent life’s history
Fossil
impring in stone of the dead organism
fossil record
The cumulative body of fossils worldwide
Mass extinction events
have occured at widely spaced intervals in Earth history and have wiped out half to 95% of our planet’s species each time
Ecology
study of interactions among organisms and between organisms and their environment
Biosphere
cumulative total of living things on Earth and the areas they inhabit
Population Ecology
investigates quantitative dynamics of how individuals within a species interact
Community Ecology
focuses on interactions within species
niche
reflects a species use of resources and its functional role in a community
Specialists
Species with narrow breadth and specific requirements for survival
Generalists
Organisms with broad tolerances, able to use a wide array of habitats
Population density
describes the number of individuals within a population per unit area
Population distribution
describes the spatial arrangement of organisms with an area
Growth Rate
calculate the birth rate plus the immigration rate, minus the death rate
Exponential Growth
When a population increases by a fixed percentage each year
Limiting factors
Physical, chemical, and biological on characteristics of the environment that retrains population growth
Carrying Capacity
maximum population size of a species that a given environment can sustain
Random Population Density
haphazardly located; means the nutrient population is high
Uniform Population Distribution
evenly spaced due to territoriality
Clumped population distribution
arranged according to availability of resources or to avoid predators
Cohorts
demographic groups according to age and sex
K-Selected Species
species with long gestation periods like humans or elephants
r-selected species
species with short gestation periods like flies or cockroaches
PRT (Population recourse technology)
Relationship between technology and birth rate