Darcy equation:Q is flowk is hydrualic conductivity of the layer defined by L. k has units of length/time, it is a function of the porous medium and the liquidA is the area of the pipe the liquid is flowing throughdh is h1-h2dL is the same as L, this the length of the tube the poruous medium takes up.What is the Darcy equation?
what is the equation for porosity of a substance
(Volume of air space)/(total volume)
in a flow net diagram, what is the same along any one equipotential line?
in a flow net diagram, an equipotential line is a line along with the hydraulic head, or pressure head, is the same. This pressure head is equal to the elevation at which the equipotential line reaches the surface
4 delta hazards
4 delta hazards include:1. groundwater quality: in bangladesh they got arsenic in thier groundwater, and saltwater intrusion into groundwater is a common problem2.
flooding in places where people are: although flooding provides the benefit of spreading nutrients to soil, it can also displace people3. earthquakes4. avulsions, which are river migrations, can dispalce people much like floods can
wetlands are defined by ____
wetlands are defined as areas with constant saturation with water, or recurrenet inundation with water. They can also be areas that physical, chemical, and/or biological features reflective of wetland environments even when they aren’t saturated. Additionally, a wetland must have some soils that are wet enough to be anaerobic
what are hydrotrophic plants
hydrotrophic plants grow on water
relationship between recurrance interval and residence time
the relationship between the recurrance interval (aka renewal rate) and the residence time is:residence time= 1/renewal rate
what is the hydroperiod aka hydrologic signature
the hydroperiod, also known as the hydrologic singature, is a graph of the change in wetland wetness over an entire year. Some wetlands get less wet during certain seasons, some stay wet all year long
water is the vocab word for when one uses water, but it doesn’t leave the stream? give an example
when water is used by stays in the stream, this is called in-stream use. Dams are an example of when water is used but it stays in the stream
what is the vocab word for water usage that requires taking water out of a stream?
the vocab word for water usage that requires taking water out of a stream is off-stream use. This refers to pretty much all water use other than dams
what is the vocab word for the water used to make a product?
water used to make a product is called virtual water or embodied water
describe the Environmental Kuznets Curve
the Environmental Kuznets Curve is generally applied to one country and plots environmental impact in one dimension like deforestation, ppm of some pollutant in the atmosphere, etc with economic wealth.
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The shape of the curve is concave up, with environmental impact increasing with growth of the economy, until it peaks and a country has the resources to deal with it’s enviromental problems
what is an exception to the general Environmental Kuznets curve that we looked at?
water use stabilizes after it peaks instead of going down on the environmental Kuznets curve
what are the two biggest water uses in the U.S. after 2005?
irragation and thermoelectric power are the two biggest uses of water in the U.S. since 2005. note that thermoelectric water use is non-consumptive
is thermoelectric water use consumptive?
Thermoelectic water use is non-consumptive
what is the biggest consumptive water use worldwide
agriculture uses more water than anything else worldwide
why is using less water for agriculture such a big focus?
using less water for agriculture is a big focus because agriculture uses the most water worldwide
when we looked at the flowchart of U.S.
water usage in class that was made in 2005, what is important to consider?
that flowchart of U.S. water usage was made before hydrofracking is the major industry it is now. hydrofracking requires massive amounts of water to be shot into the ground, so it’s extremley water intensive and changes the flowchart of U.S. water useage
what are the two observations we made in class about changes in water use in the U.
S. other the last century
over the last century, water usage for irragation has stayed about the same, while water use for thermoelectric has majorly increased to overtake irragation as the number one use by volume
increasing block pricing for water
increasing block pricing for water is when the rate for water goes up as you use more water
when a user of water wants a bigger slice of the total avaible water “pie,” where do often turn to first?
usually agriculture is the first target of other uses who want to use more of the availible water
units that are specific to water consumption
one acre-foot, the amount of water it takes to cover an acre of land with water, is the unit associated with water consumption
list six strategies for conserving water that we talked about in class
six strategies for conserving water that we talked about in class:1. efficient fixtures.
For example, efficient toilets use far less water than normal ones2 fix leaks3. use less outdoor water4. provide rebates to homes and businesses that use less water5. rainwater harvesting6. gray water use
in terms of profit-per-water use, which is more efficient, vegtables or cotton/alfalfa?
vegtables provide far more profit per water use than cotton or alfalfa
what is the conceptual basis behind virtual water trade?
the conceptual basis behind virtual water trade is that when a country exports or inputs a resource that requires water, they are also importing or exporting virtual water. Example: isreal, a country without excess water to waste, discourages the export of goods that take a lot of water, like organges, because Isreal doesn’t want it’s water leaving it’s borders
4 agricultural innovations that decrease water consumption that we discussed in class
the 4 agricultural innovations that decrease water consumption that we discussed in class are:1. modest crop shifting2.
smart irragation scheduling- water when sun isn’t strong, for example3. advanced irragation management4. efficient irragation techniques
is this country, how has the combined water consumption of all industry changed overt time?
the water usage of industry has stayed steady lately
list 5 water-intensive industries
the five water-intensive industries we looked at in class are:1.
chemicals2. petroluem refining3. pulp and paper4. primary metals5. food processing
what are five water intensive industries we looked at in class?
The five water intensive industries we looked at in class are1.
pulp and paper2. chemicals3. food processing4.
petroluem refinery5. primary metals
Indirect water use is quantified by what study?
Indirect water use is quantified by an economic input-output life cycle assessment
how much water use in industry is indirect?
60% of water use in industry is indirect
economic input-output life cycle assessment is used to quantify what?
economic input-output life cycle assessment is used to look at indirect water use?
about what % of industries have over 50% direct water use?
for the vast majority of industries over 50% of the water usage is indirect
do a slide on water use and the energy sector after getting an answer to my question
water widthdrawal breakdown vs wealth: how does water usage change as countries get richer?
poor countries use pretty much all thier availible water for irragation.As countries get richer, they use more for industry and domestic. As a rule of thumb, industry usage will grow quicker than domestic
4 dam services
provide water for irragation during dry periods (droughts or dry seasons)2. generate electricity3. control water supply4. reduce floods
four dam services
four dam services1. reduce floods2. control water supply3.
generate electricity4. irragation. Resivoirs provide water for dry periods, either droughts or simply dry seasons.
when dams are built downstream of vegatated areas, water floods lush areas and kills plants. Other than direct ecosystem destruction, what environmental does this exacterbate?
when dams kill plants it increases GHG emissions and takes away those plant’s ability to remove CO2 from the atmosphere
what impact on sediments do dams have?
dams stop water and cause sediment to fall out, so sediment doesn’t make it downstream to maintain natural processes like deltas
what direct effect do dams have on the hydrological cycle outside of the river they obstruct?
resivoirs behind dams are related to increased evaporation, which in turn increases precipitation
what did we study in terms of the intersection of water pollution and dams
we studied how water pollution accumulates at dams
what are 8 environmental impacts of dams we looked at?
the 8 environmental impacts of dams we studied are:
1. greenhouse gas emissions from flooded plants
2. lower sediment downstream
4. increased precipitation from increased evaporation
5. water pollution accumulates at the dam
6. habitat alteration/fragmentation
7. erosions and landslides
8. altered flow patterns of the river
what was the only positive socioeconomic impact of existing (not building) dams that we looked at
the one positive socioeconomic impact of dams that we looked at is that they reduce flooding that destroys farms and homes
what are the four negative socioeconomic impacts of dams?
the four negative socioeconomic impacts of dams that we looked at are:1.
settlement2. permanent loss of livlihoods for fishermen, farmers and other people whose jobs depend on the land3. health impacts4. cultural loss
describe 1st order ecosystem impacts of dams
1st order ecosystem impacts of dams are directly caused by the dam. 1st order impacts include physical, chemical, and geomorphological consequences of blocking a river and altering the path/timing of the flow
describe 2nd order ecosystem impacts of dams
2ndorder ecosystem impacts refer only to changes in biological productivity resulting from 1st order impacts
describe 3rd order ecosystem impacts of dams
3rd order ecosystem impacts of dams refer only to changes in fauna from 1st or 2nd order ecosystem impacts. an example of a 1st order impact changing fauna would be fish not being able to migrate due to a dam. An example of a 2nd order impact affecting fauna would be less food because a decrease in plankton availibility.
what is notable on greenhouse gas emissions that resulted from flooded land upstream of the Tocuri Dam?
Depending on which estimate you use, the Tocuri Dam may have created more or less greenhouse gas emissions that oil or coal
what are the 7 environmental categories of study of dams that we looked at?
the 7 environmental categories of study of dams that we looked at are:1. greenhouse gas emissions2. affects of resivoirs3. impacts of altered flows4. impacts of changing flood cycle5.
impacts of dams on fisheries6. cumulative impact of multiple dams7. ecosystem enhancement
5 biological implications of dams that we studied
the 5 biological implications of dams that we studied are:1. small floods can trigger fish/vertabrate migration2.
dams maintain/create habitats3. “variability sustains complexity”4. dams change temperature and chemistry of the water they block up5. dams cause downstream algal growth
hydropower dams release water from the reservoir at a rate proportional to ____
hydropower dams release water from thier reservoirs at a rate proportional to the energy they must generate.
So they let out more at peak power
why does the flow in cfs from a hydropower plants vary a lot on a daily basis, but less so on a year-to-year basis?
because hydropower plants need to release more water to spin more turbines and/or spin turbines faster during peak hours when demand for electricity is high
what were 6 impacts of sediment trapping from dams that we studied?
the 6 impacts from sediment trapping from dams that we studied are:1. reduction in downstream nutrients2. degredation in downstream river channel3. reduced vegatation4. reduced fish habitat5. degredation of deltas6. increased coastline erosion
what did we say is the most significant ecosystem impact of dams?
the most significant ecosystem impact of dams is blocked fish migration
blocked fish migration occurs at what % of dams?
blocked fish migration occurs at 60% of dams
what percent of dams that block fish migration did not see the problem of blocked fish migration coming?
36% of dams that block fish migration don’t see the problem of fish migration coming
what % of human-induced speices loss is due to resivoirs?
55% of human-induced species loss is due to resivoirs
what percent of human-induced species loss is due to blocked migration?
19% of human induced species loss is due to blocked migration
dams cause these two things that both make a substational amount of human-induced species loss
human induced species loss from dams comes from resivoirs (55%) and blocked migration (19%)
are fish passes, aka fish ladders, common in U.
fish passes aka fish ladders are not common in U.S. dams, they are present in 9.5% of U.S.
what is one big problem with fish passes aka fish ladders
one big problem with fish passes aka fish ladders is that you need different sized steps for different sized fish
do fish passes aka fish ladders work well?
fish passes aka fish ladders do not work very well. in norway 32% don’t work at all, and 41% don’t work very well
what are two ecosystem benefits of dams?
the two ecosystem benefits of dams are1. dams create wetlands, which are biologically diverse, are good for tourism, protect against floods, sequester carbon from the atmosphere, and have many other benefits2.
dams create habitats for threatened species
what are two positive social impacts of dam construction specificalyl?
two positive social impacts of dam construction are1. high employment during construction2. roads, power lines, etc. are built to support the workers which stick around after the dam is done
what are two negative social impacts of dam construction specfically?
two negative impacts of dam construction specifically are:1. temporary workers bring disease2.
temporary worker result in “loss of social cohesion”, i.e. they piss people off
what is the problem with data on displacement due to dams?
the global data on displacement due to dams often underestimates the number of displaced people
what is the problem with the what displaced poeple are “given” after they are resettled?
when people are resettled, they are often paid but don’t have jobs or usable skills to find jobs
what particular group of people are most often taken advantage of when their homes are about to be flooded by reservoirs?
indigenous people are often taken advantage of when their homes are flooded due to dam creation. they aren’t properly resettled and don’t have the ability to live lives outside of thier home
what is one social factor other than displacement that is rarely considered before dam construction
the affect of dams on human health is rarely considered before construction
what are 5 human health impacts that result from dams?
5 human health impacts of dams are:1. parasites breed in still or slow-moving waters. Dams increase instances of malaria in areas that already had malaria2. eutrophication in reservoirs can lead to toxic cyanobacteria, in china they saw increased liver cancer from toxic cyanobacteria in drinking water3. mercury accumulation in reservoirs can lead to disease4.
food shortages caused by dams5. HIV/AIDs can be spread by migrant workers
you are looking at an energy balance of a power grid, and there won’t be enough power to go around in a few years. you either need to ____ or ____ or both
to keep electricity going in the grid, you either need to increase production or reduce demand
three general categories of flood management strategies;
the three general categories of flood management strategies are:1. reduce the size of floods2. reduce the threat of the existing floods3.
increase people’s capacity to cope with floods
since 1960, what is the approximate ratio of costs: costs of damages prevented that the U.S. government says is the result of dam?
the U.S. government claims that since 1960, every dollar spend on dams has prevented 10 dollars worth of damage.
38 billion spent, 387 billion dollars worth of damage prevented
when we look at the cost-benefit anaylsis of U.S. flood control, what numbers don’t we see?
when we look at the numbers the U.S. puts on on the cost-benefit of dams, we don’t see the damages caused by dams in the numbers
what are two human impacts on the hydrology of the Yangtzee Basin
two human impacts on the hydrology of the Yangtzee Basin are1.
forest area reduced by 50%, which doubled the area exposed to rapid erosion2. land reclimation and siltation filled in lakes which increased flood size and frequency
in the Yangtzee Basin, humans cut down many trees. What effect did this have on the land?
in the Yangtzee basin, desforestation lead to increased erosion
in the Yangtzee Basin, humans filled in lakes to have more land to build on.
What affect did this have on hydrology?
less lake volume in the Yangtzee Basin increased flood frequency and intensity
in 1998 there was a flood in the Yangtzee basin that caused a ton of damage, but the flood volume was actually not that high. What does this tell us?
a not particulary large flood destroyed a particulary large amount of damage, showing how susceptible that area is to floods
what are three impacts of development on hydrology that the guest lecturer talked about?
the three impacts of development on hydrology that the guest lecturer talked about are:1. impereable surfaces drop the water table2. imperemeable surface cause more drastic storm peaks in hydrograph3. less vegatation means less evapotranspiration
modern development of green infrastructure is really driven by what law?
modern development of green infrastructure is really driven by the EPA’s Clean water act. This is because the EPA’s clean water act treats runoff as a pollutant, and incentivizes reducing groundwater runoff
how is the EPA’s Clean Water Act related to green infrastructure?
the EPA’s Clean Water Act wants to reduce waterborne pollutants. Groundwater runoff carries pollutants.
Thus, the Clean Water Act wants you to reduce groundwater runoff
what is the example the Guest Lecturer gave of an older strategy involving water that did nothing to reduce the volume of runoff?
it used to be that developers would just put ponds next to their developments so the water would have a place to go, the ponds did nothing to reduce groundwater runoff
what are three 2010 NYS Design Standards on Green Infrastructure that the guest lecturer spoke about?
the three peices on the 2010 NYS design standards on Green Infrastructure the guest lecturer spoke about were1. avoid impacts to hydrology by preserving open space and not changing stream paths2. reduce runoff by reducing paved areas3.
used green infrastructure to absorb groundwater instead of letting it runoff
the main goal of green infrastructure
the main goal of green infrastructure is to let rainwater soak into the ground instead of running off into ponds and streams
what are three examples of green infrastructure that the guest lecturer told us about?
the three examples of green infrastructure the Guest lecturer told us about are:1. bio retention areas. These are generally converted paved areas that now that dirt, they are meant to let some water soak into the dirt and have storm sewer overflow drains2. roof leader disconnection: these send water from your roof through your gutters to your garden instead of the storm sewer. They are just a little extension3. porous pavement.
Like outside the fucking crime lab
describe green infrastructure’s affect on:1. surfacewater runoff2. groundwater recharge3. water quality
green infrastructure:1. reduces surfacewater runoff2. increases groundwater recharge3. improves water quality
what are the three benefits of green infrastructure that we discussed?
three benefits of green infrastructure that we discussed are:1. improved water quality2.
better groundwater recharge3. less surfacewater runoff
how does the mobility of water make it a distinctive good?
water is very mobile, so it moves around on it’s own and makes it hard to measure/allocate, and provides uncertainity to the system
what about water’s variability makes it a distinctive good?
water supply is often variable, you have floods, storms, and droughts that affect supply
water is used to generate steam and turn heat energy to electricity energy at a nuclear plant, then flows back into a river and is used for a fish farm a mile away. what quality of water does this demonstrate?
water often has sequential use.
whether it is going from a sink to a lawn as gray water, or from a power plant to a stream that people fish in, water often is used sequentailly and this makes it difficult to put a price on processes that only change the water, not make it unusable
I can either use water from this river to irrigate a farm that will make money this year or save it for domestic use in a housing development that will be done in four years. What quality of water does this demonstrate?
this demonstrate’s water’s complementarity of outputs. water can be used for many things, and we have to make hard choices
water’s bulkiness affects what particular aspect of water markets?
water’s bulkiness brings up the transaction costs of moving water around, which cuts into your profit margin. Water isn’t very expensive on a per volume basis
water’s high transaction cost is partially defined by this
water’s high transaction cost is partially defined by it’s bulkiness, how much room it takes up
how does economies of scale affect water distribution?
the fact that bigger dams and bigger reservoirs are a cheaper way to capture water is a function of economies of scale. The fact that bigger dams are more efficient leads to a lot of water/power being consolidated in the hands of a few people
define conditional probability
conditional probability is the probability that B occurs if A occurs
binomial distrbution is about carrying out _____
binomial distribution is about carrying out n independant bernoulli trials
a bernoulli trial is useful in situations with a _____ outcome
a bernoulli trial is used when you have binary outcome
I have an amount of time that is how long it most likely is until we see a storm of X size. what is this number called?
a return period is an amount of time that says how long it most likely is until a storm of X size occurs
what is the equation for the return period of a storm of x size?
the equation for return period of a storm of X size:1/(probability that a storm is X size or bigger)
P[A “conditional symbol” B] =?;
P[A “conditional symbol” B]=(P[A+B])/P[B]
if P[A “conditonal symbol” B] = P[A]
if P[A “conditional symbol” B] = P[A], then A and B are independant and aren’t related in a probabalistic sense
what would the water economics reading call a use of a communal resource that doesn’t deplete the resource?
if your use of a communal resource doens’t deplete the resource, your use is non-rival
what would the water economics reading call use of a communal resource that can deplete that resouce?
if a use of a resource depletes that resource, we call that use rival
give an example of excludable rival resources
pretty much all goods are rival and excludable like compueters, bricks, or condoms.
Within the context of water usage, if you have absolute priority to use water consumptivley, like a senoir user in the western U.S., the system allows for excludable, rival use of water
describe a partially excludable, rival use of water
a partially excludeable, rival use of water is when water is being consumptively and there are rules to who gets how much. It isn’t a free for all, like non-excludable, but no one person gets to use as much as they want, like with excludeable resources.
Riparianism is an example of a partially excludable system of water usage
what system of usage allows for a free-for-all of a depletable resource?
when a good is rival (depletable) and non-excludable (no rules for keeping anyone away from it), then you have a free for all where anyone can take as much as they want