The Atmosphere Structure and Temperature

What produces a variety of weather?
The combination of Earth’s motions and energy from the sun.
What is climate based on?
Climate is based on observations of weather that have been collected over many years.
What is air a mixture of?
Air is a mixture of different gases and particles, each with its own physical properties.
What two gases make up 99% of dry air?
Nitrogen and oxygen
What gas plays a significant role in heating the atmosphere?
Carbon dioxide
What is the source of all clouds and precipitation?
Water vapor
What are some particles that remain suspended for long periods of time?
Sea salts, fine soil, smoke and soot, pollen and microorganisms, and ash and dust
When do oxygen atoms split into single atoms of oxygen?
When the absorb ultraviolet radiation emitted from the sun
What does ozone absorb?
It absorbs harmful UV radiation from the sun
What accounts for nearly half of the primary pollutants by weight?
Emissions from transportation vehicles
What are secondary pollutants?
Pollutants that are not emitted directly into the air
What are photochemical reactions?
Reactions triggered by strong sunlight
What is atmospheric pressure?
The weight of the air above
How many layers is the atmosphere divided into?
Four
In what layer do most weather phenomena occur?
Troposphere
Where does most energy that drives weather and climate come from?
Sun
What creates winds and drives the ocean’s currents?
It is the unequal heating of Earth
What is rotation?
The spinning of the earth about its axis
What is revolution?
The movement of a body around another body
What are the degrees the Earth is tilted?
23.5 degrees
What is length of daylight determined by?
Earth’s position in orbit
What are the three mechanisms for energy transfer?
Conduction, convection, and radiation
What can radiant energy travel through?
The vacuum of space
Do hot or cold objects radiate more energy?
Hotter objects radiate more energy than cold objects
Does land or water hear to higher temperatures faster?
Land heats more rapidly and to higher temperatures than water
What is a coast called in which winds blow from the ocean onto the shore?
Windward coast
What is albedo?
Albedo is the fraction of the total radiation that is reflected by any surface.
What does the extent of cloud cover influence?
The amount of incoming radiation
What type of lines connects points of the same temperature?
Isotherms