The economically viable way. Microbiome engineering alters the

The term microbiome is a combination of collective genomes of
the microorganisms residing inside and on the human host. Over millions of
years of co-evolution, micro-organisms have adapted to form ecological
communities on earth. These microbial communities can exist in or on living
hosts. Micro-organisms in microbiomes interact dynamically with their hosts and
among themselves to form synergistic relationships. The characteristics of
ecosystems are determined by the core microbiome that they possess. Microbiome
engineering is applied most extensively on the human microbiome for the
betterment of the human. This is due to the potential of manipulating micro
biota in humans for treatment of diseases, given that the human microbiome has
been found to influence the physiology of the host and its composition has been
correlated to diseases and disorders such as diabetes and cancer. Like the
human microbiome, animal microbiome is composed of diverse microbial
communities and the composition of the micro biota correlates with the hosts’
growth and health. Current microbial process steering is based on basic
operational parameters. Microbial communities reflect an interacting
microbiological entity. Engineering of the microbiome can be achieved via a
top-down or bottom-up approach. Mixed microbial communities that are involved
in numerous biotechnological processes are not randomly organised, but possess
a 3-dimensional structural and interactive organisation. Engineering of the
microbiome is of crucial importance to ensure that the desired processes and
products are obtained in an economically viable way. Microbiome engineering
alters the microbiomes through ecological and evolutionary processes. The
ecological processes includes change in the community diversity and evenness,
relative species abundances, and the structure of host–microbe and
microbe–microbe interaction networks. The evolutionary processes include
extinction of microbial types, changes in allele frequencies, mutation, and
horizontal gene transfer that restructure microbial genomes. Both ecological
and evolutionary changes can be tracked with high throughput DNA sequencing
methods that infer taxon presence–absence and abundance, active microbial
functions that are being expressed, and permit mechanistic inferences of
microbiome functions. Microbiome Engineering provides a better
understanding of industrially important genetically manipulated and engineered
prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell systems.