Why is the period between 1789 to 1914 called the long nineteenth century ? Table of contents It is no easy task to define precisely what exactly could have been a period that spread over more than a hundred years, especially such a complex and detailed one as the long nineteenth century. This historical process basically determined the structure of modern Europe, created capitalism, also developed social awareness and new political systems as well as lead to the First World War.
It is the result of several processes’ that happened at the same time in different places at different levels, all linked or resulting from precedents, set-off in a chain reaction. Through this essay, I will focus on four themes that, to my mind, are critical to explain what the long nineteenth century was. These themes are ‘chunks’ of this whole process made of few others that are interdependent and we will see throughout my demonstration how they are tied and related and how they have effect on each others.
The question I am asking to myself in order to try to answer to this subject is the following : ‘ What are he major intrinsic processes/phases and their factors/implications, that can help understanding the events and major modifications that occurred in Europe throughout the long nineteenth century, finally leading it to World War I ? This kind of topic suggests a chronological analysis so this is why I will begin by describing what started it all, the context of this beginning part and how it set up the conditions for the following parts.
This will allow me to emphasize later how events could influence each other through the time and draw kind of a time line of this period explaining ins and outs. These ‘ins and outs’ are maybe details, but critical, because that accompany each part of each ‘chunk of the essay and they will reflect why I am writing this. I want to try to explain what allowed everything to change, in people’s minds, in leader’s behaviors and their ability to deal with foreign countries and a society that was continuously moving and evolving on every single plan for more than a hundred years because of the industrial revolutions.
I shall therefore begin with what is commonly known as the ‘Dual Revolutions’ from 1789 18th (1), then I will go wrought two other phases – explaining their context before starting – that described the same period but in different and at the same time interdependent ways, these periods are respectively called ‘The age of capitalism and the rise of nationalism’ (2) essay will depict the crucial period that lasted from 1871 to 1914 leading to the beginning of World War I and is entitled ‘A time of imperialism, from Europe and globalization, to the Great War’ (4). Theme 1 : 1789-1848 The Dual Revolutions 1.
The French Revolution and the French Empire The ‘Long nineteenth century finds its sources more than a hundred years before World War I broke out. Indeed, everything began in France still under the reign of the kings, during a period designated as Ancient Regime that suddenly ended with the French Revolution. Not only because of the French Revolution, things began to change rapidly, something else obviously happened at the same time. The beginning of our long historical processes is the fruit of two revolutions than ran together in an irresistible wave that spread across Europe.
These two revolutions, the French Revolution and more generally those that followed it as a whole ; combined with the iris Industrial Revolution has had different impacts on society as well on economy and they can be tied together as actions and reactions that created social change. This first part of my essay will try to figure out what the French Revolution and both the first industrial Revolution implied, how they were significant to the modifications of western European societies, economics and politics leading to the establishment of modern Europe while setting up the conditions for the second wave of revolutions of 1848.
The French Revolution began in 1789, it was a part of a whole series of revolution which took place during the late 18th century. This unique kind of revolution was due to major social discontent, starvation and the spreading of French philosophers’ enlightenment ideals (else’s philosophies des LumpГ©rest” : such as Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Nonentities, Derider and telemeter, Saint Just, Sieges and many others). Combined with the native industrial revolution that began around the sass’s thanks to technological innovations, causing social awareness of the arbitrary type of the Old Regime by the improvement of life standards.
Indeed, high ranked nobility and rich winners were quite decadent at this time and this was brought to public knowledge thanks to the very new newspapers. Also weakened at this time by several wars, for several different reasons across Europe involving other monarchies. Following the French Revolution, political agitation occurred in England, Ireland, Holland, Belgium, Switzerland, loyalty, Germany, Hungary, Poland and the American colonies.
It was a never seen before movement of people claiming their rights for freedom and democracy as well as the part of the wealthiest they deserved because they were the lower producing class. As an example, there was this brochure(l), very well know, from labГ© Sieges, depicting a serf carrying a clerk and a member of the nobility on his back, bending over at 900, below an inscription : What is the Third Estate ? Everything. What has been until now in the political order ? Nothing. What does it asks for ? To become a part of it’.
This pamphlet depicted the current situation in and so 97% of the population working hard everyday for 2% and having no rights. IsГ©yГ©s’ famous brochure from January 1789 (source Google Images) However, the French Revolution was certainly more fundamental and had more rebound consequences than the American Revolution. It actually lead to a blood bath during the Napoleonic Wars and the prior Reign Of Terror (Robberies and Dayton with the вЂўcomicГ© De Sault Public”) but nevertheless led to the Congress of Vienna after Napoleon was defeated and exiled to SST Helene. . The Mathematician Era 1815-1848 and the First Industrial Revolution The Congress of Vienna is important for the sequel of the process we study in this essay. The conservative “Concert of Europe” that was set up by the 181 5 Congress of Vienna, eventual it was a source of peace for the next 34 years, failed to improvise with the liberal elements generated in the European societies that could have been invaded by the Great Army(2) and so set up the conditions for the upcoming 1848 revolutions.
It is important to stress here that few European countries were not remade by Bonaparte experiences such as Italy and the Austrian Empire. On top of that, some countries’ claims and wills were not taken into consideration by the enactments of Print Clemens von Meteoritic and his colleagues through the Congress of Vienna, thus were treated differently. This will make sense later in the hired part of the essay. Indeed he became the ‘man of the situation’, ruling the Congress and confirming Austrian power in Europe as far as The Holy Roman Empire took end by 1806 and Germany was reduced to a confederation of 37 states.
By the way historians usually refer to the years following the Congress of Vienna as ‘The Mathematician Era’, there were other diplomatic top fugues such as Talleyrand for France and Castellated for Britain but the Austrian had the apprehend in the foreign affairs game. The first industrial revolution was closely tied to the upcoming of capitalism, the use r investment of money to make profits and moons of impacts on the social behavior of Europeans as their way of life since a while was drastically changing (3).
The politic of ‘Laissez fairer’ was introduced as a new economic model, in doing so, leaders were now supported by merchants and industrials. More and more people went to the cities to find a Job or start their own businesses, it is commonly recognized that at this time the average income level got higher and a middle class appeared more clearly. This is even truer in England thanks to innovations in agricultural machinery the manufactures feeding the system. At this time Britain became the Workshop of the World”, for example annual importations of cotton in England in 1786 reached 11 millions of pounds, in 1850 it reached 588 millions.
Same phenomenon for the exportation’s. The rest of Europe only slowly caught up wit the British but mass industrialization finally spread to France, Belgium, Germany, Rangeland and Northern Italy (4). It is by the way at this time that lifestyle of the poor people and middle classes began to change, as well as relations between classes(6), authors such as Charles Dickens, Victor Hugo or HonorГ© De Balzac described it very well in especially The Hard Times, Less MISГ©rabbles or Germinal and, Lee PГ©re Giorgio.
For example, this quote taken from Cola’s Germinal depicts in which conditions workers found themselves : “He simply wanted to go down the mine again, to suffer and to struggle; and he thought angrily of those ‘people’ Bonnet had told him about, and of the squat and sated deity to whom ten thousand starving men and women daily offered up their flesh without ever knowing who or what this god might be. ” Part l. As I told before, the congress of Vienna generated an eternal seek of stability, therefore he governments increased their police powers.
In doing so, repression against demonstrations became very violent, the example of the Petrol massacre is very accurate here. This period can be described as a Restoration period, monarchies were brought back or reinvented which constituted a step forward in people’s minds. For example, in France, Louis XVIII came to power, followed by Charles the X who was known to be an ultra (very conservative) and was kind of a bad king, he had to deal with a left wing parliament, he abolished the charter of 1814, limited the power of the press and voting rights.
Hopefully he was followed by the one we called ‘Bourgeois King, Louis-Phillips, strengthened France’s position in Europe, industrialization it. He was more progressive but ultimately fell from power power because he could not win the allegiance of the new industrial classes in 1848. This restoration period all over Europe, allowing censorship and depriving people from citizen rights, combined with the repression against social claims and seizure of a neglecting bourgeoisie reached its boiling point in 1846.
Too bad for the European countries’ leaders, the industrial and agricultural depression of 1846 aroused widespread popular consistent at a time when insurrection’s movements of proletarian and middle classes were setting up. All the elements necessary for a revolution were gathered so it could therefore begin. Theme 2 : 1848-1871 The Age of capitalism and nationalism 1 . The social atmosphere brought by early capitalism’s development Early industrial changes, had tremendous impacts.
Indeed the long-term impact of the First Industrial Revolution and the beginning Second Industrial Revolution led to a better standard of living for most Europeans, this was probably not true until the second half of the 19th century. Even if the process created more middling-level Jobs as I told before, living conditions for most workers were terrible and almost totally unregulated until the sass(1). Countries were still poorly managed, there were not that much hospitals, railways were developing slowly etc.
On the socio-political side, some unions formed and more public attention was given to the situation; this was in England, Other European countries took a little bit more time to give social rights to their citizens this is why the revolution did not break out in England in 1848 and economic growth could keep going on faster than anywhere down there. Whereas in France it did break out, the Restoration set up by the Congress of Vienna still carried on by – at the time- Louis-Philippe doorГ©NAS is stopped by the people.
Penthouse this king brought economic growth to France too, he did it too much in the bourgeoisie’s favor leading to a discontented middle class, neglected by uppercases. At that time, wealth and dire straits stood together in the streets, the governments got really unpopular so Louis Philippe had to abdicate in February 1848. At the same time Piedmont granted a constitution and Prussia too. In the Austrian
Empire, riots triggered caused by students, independents (Magma’s) and angry serfs, causing Meteoritic to resign and flee to England where he died. Serfs were therefore freed in the Austrian Empire. In Germany it is the same thing ; riots happen for several reasons, in a Catholic vs… Protestant melting pot, add social discontent, failed crops, one of the most efficient ongoing arbitration with its side effects and the lack of identity ; as many reasons to revolt. . The end of Romanticism and the rise of nationalism The opportunity to revolt against the powers was therefore hung over the moments of the Congress of Vienna like the sword of DamoclesГ©s but I want to stress here that in France it was more for economic, social and demographic issues that it happened whereas Germany and Italy have both a different cause to take in consideration, nationalism issues, seek for identity and for unity later.
These countries had indeed been left apart in the Concert of Europe, divided in 10 for Italy to 37 parts for the German Confederation and culturally different from one region to another penthouse they shared an overall general identical culture. These evolutions were the beginning of these phenomenon of strong nationalism feelings and uprising of self interests ; moreover the taste for romanticism got lost because of the terrific reality of arbitration’s side effects and the development always faster of technologies and industrialization.
As a movement going towards romanticism, scientifically positivism began to develop and interest for many current sciences such as anthropology for example grew. On the other hand, this feeling of nationalism also manifested itself in very new sciences such as eugenics, social Darwinism that quickly met racial nationalism and even populations theories (Thomas Malthusian(l)).
These theories were launched and got successful, and this can be explained by the self interest effect developed by people in a world where, henceforth, countries were ruled by renewed monarchists puppets or remnants of it and dynamited by developing communications, technologies in general, medicine (Pasteur discovered the germs) and arbitration favoring interactions between people. Accompanied by the uprising of socialism and Marxism at different levels of the societies, political consciousness aroused. Besides, at that time, antimissile got new adepts too, especially in Russia.
I hope I am making myself clear here because everything is linked here and happens at the same time in a one and unique ongoing process. Few wars also broke out during this period as a result of Italy’s and especially the strong will of leading fugues such as Count Camilla did Cavort and Otto von Bismarck. These fugues were carrying the flag of their own national interests and applied what was called Realities or even Machiavellian as their policy for change, exploiting tensions between nations that remained since the Napoleon era.
They were representatives of the strongest areas of their cultural spheres and were therefore pioneers in beginning to claim a national identity for countries that had been dislocated to be weakened or under influence of foreign powers. Savor’s Piedmont- Sardinia was pressured by the Austrian and the French and Prussia was the most developed of the German countries, feared military speaking. The Crimean War 1853-56, is a good example of this melting pot of different kind of tensions between, religions, spheres of diplomatic influence, economic interests -globalization begins – and nationalism.
This war was a terrible failure eventual Russia was defeated, it was kind of a lucky success rather than an accomplishment of glory for France and Great Britain. Half a million people died during this conflict, most from disease. It has proved the great powers involved that even if they were technologically advantaged and military speaking more powerful, as well as world’s top economic leaders, they were completely unable to be strategically efficient far away from their homeland.
Indeed the poem referring to the Charge of the Light Brigade from Lord Alfred Tennyson illustrates perfectly how the British were strategically incompetent on the tattletale. Illustration of William Simpson Charge of the light cavalry brigade, 25th Cot. 1854, under Major General the Earl of Cardigan (source Google images) It was also the opportunity for smaller powers such as Piedmont Sardinia to bring the problem of Italy to the attention of great powers and have a place on the international scene.
Austria got ashamed, involving lately by fear of losing Russian’s friendship that had helped it earlier to crush the Magma’s and by putting pressure on Prussia, brought Otto von Bismarck to power. As I mentioned it before, several conflicts broke out in Europe during the second Alfa of the 19th century, those I did not mention in this section were the ones that happened in Germany and Italy, as a result of the failed 1848 revolutions and growing national feelings emphasized by scientifically positivism and economic growth.
These two countries got ready step by step to claim their unity and identity. Theme 3: 1848-1871 Time for unification 1 . ‘The Originates” or the Italian unification Peace occurred in 1856 with the Treaty of Paris. Piedmont Sardinia and Britain meet NapoleonГ©on Ill and the English repГ©sensitive to end this conflict officially, making France seem a powerful country. Piedmont Sardinia finally finds a little place on the international scene by being part of this victorious coalition, it took part in this conflict only by interest.
Let me remind you the context in Italy. At that time, Italy was a country divided in 10 kingdoms or entities under influence of the nobility, the French Bourbons and in the north-east, Austrian puppets. There were only two ‘states’ Meteoritic called loyalty a ‘geographic expression’ more than anything else and I think he was right. Moreover, people spoke different dialects and most were illiterate and Catholics. All conflicts were generally because of the Austrian, I mean Austria was the worst enemy in Northern Italian’s minds at least.
Charles Albert Piedmont declared war to Austria but was crushed in 1849 forcing him to abdicate in favor of his son, Victor Emmanuel II. Victor Emmanuel II then met secretly at AplombГ©rest (1) with Napoleon Ill where they agreed that if the Austrian ever attacked Piedmont (they still occupied Lombardy-Venetian), France would help the Piedmont and get Nice and Savoy as a reward. In other terms, Piedmont Just had to find the caucus belle and war for unification could begin, at least with a good help. So Austria finally attacks. France and Piedmont strike back, kicking out the Austrian and occupying the Northern part of Italy.
After Rosin’s bomb attack, France suddenly negotiates peace with Austria and the Piedmont fond thrillers alone and got crushed again by Austrian troops. At least they had won Lombardy. Later in 1860, Giuseppe Garibaldi a very famous Italian revolutionary, sailed to Sicily with his troops to begin Italian’s fight for unification, as he landed and got upper and upper in Italian territory, Cavort sent his troops in the Roman Papal states to stop him, completing the ‘puzzle’ and the war was won. Meanwhile up in the North, Germany was also at war for unification and Prussian looked at Italy’s unification with envy. . The unification of Germany In 1848, German speaking people were far from having achieved their unity under the model of a nation state like the French did. In the South of the German Confederation, the Austrian Empire gathered numerous catholic Germans but also Orthodox Slavic, Hungarian and Jews. In the North, protestant Honorableness Prussia suggests in 1834 to create what was called the Deutsche Silvering(l), a customs union between German countries that was supposed to be a first step in a hypothetical unification process of these two opposed parts.
In 1848, the Frankfurt Assembly (1 ibis), is created, formed of liberals, middle classes and professionals with the same motivations than the French Revolution of 1848. This assembly took for ever in unfinished arguments about which structure should unified Germany adopt, they had 3 options (Grouchiest, Childlikeness that was a Prussian idea, and Metallurgic). All these ideas died before 1851, moreover they did not have Austrian support. So finally Frederica Wilhelm ‘V, King of Prussia, sees himself expected to come king of a German Union, is offered a crown that he refuses stating that it is вЂўmade out of mud”.
Tensions got bigger and bigger with Austria at that time for different diplomatic reasons so the Status-Prussian War broke out in 1866. It was an opportunity for Bismarck to show his determination and for Prussia to show its great military power an technological capabilities (first machine guns, first automatic guns). Indeed he once said : вЂў My highest ambition is to make the German into a nation”(2). They literally destroyed the Austrian army (which hopefully kept Austrian troops busy
Also in 1864, Prussia went on another war, extending its influence and rules to German territories under Danish influence, Schlesinger-Holstein, they won again. All these victories emphasized the pride of being German and therefore the feeling of nationalism behind the leading figure of Bismarck. Meanwhile, Bismarck advocated Cultural (3) in Germany, this was a nation oriented policy consisting of fighting socialism, clericalism and promoting technological research and development as well as isolating France.
Indeed, Bismarck made of Germany one of the most worldwide agonized country for its university system, its laboratories and its up to date warfare equipment (birth of nowadays biggest chemical companies). After having jailed peasants and forbidden unions, he had to resign and to ton down. Using the constitution in a Machiavellian way to fit with socialists reverberations after having almost chased them if they were not driven underground, he gave to Germany the very first Social Security system ever as well as old age, sickness and accidents pensions.
This policy that he used, brought at the same time, social support as well as huge debt but also a very well equipped military complex. It is also easy to say that at that time, all European countries armed themselves massively(l). One last war could finally achieve Prussia’s seizure of all German territories, the Franco-Prussian War (1870-1871). The French army was crushed too during this war, by the way causing Napoleon Ill to abdicate and France to loose Lace-Lorraine until 1918.
With this war against France, Bismarck succeeded in having the South German territories to line up with Prussia’s rest of the German states. Germany was therefore unified by 1871 and also industrially even more powerful thanks to Bismarck achievements. France and Austria were broken, balance of powers had definitely changed in Europe after the German unification. The impact of the 1848 Revolutions and the Bismarck Germany on the following of the events is easily foreseeable as the tone will drastically change soon.
Great Powers will now go through a diplomatic and expansionist phase in order to grow bigger, gather more riches to become more important on the international scene and strengthen diplomatic relationships. Theme 4 : A time of imperialism, from Europe and the globalization, to the Great War 1 . A new balance in the European powers, Pox Britannica vs… Ultraist Germany After Bismarck Germany came Wilhelmina Germany. It is easy to say that therefore, things differed from the later era. Wilhelmina policy according to foreign affairs, economics and expansionism got kind out of control.
Indeed, following Bismarck directions, the German leader got even further in the following fields : militarism, imperialism, and racist nationalism. Nationalism also manifested in countries except for Britain and the Netherlands(l).. Imperialism has to be considered here as a sequel to capitalism, a special genre of it, referring to the ‘game’ he Great powers of Europe played between 1871 and 1914. Lenin himself described it as : ‘ the highest stage of capitalism’. This game is what is commonly known to be the great wave of colonization that occurred in this period.
Since the balance of power reversed in Europe, the powerfully and peaceful Great Britain was now facing Germany’s dangerously militating and expansionist wave, France having been defeated as well as the Austrian Empire. I have not yet evoked was what going on in Great Britain, this last era of my essay, the imperialist and globalization phase was definitely Britain’s one. Thanks to social reforms put forward at the right moment and well conducted diplomatic relationships with the great powers of Europe, Great Britain could foolish.
Great Britain could foolish because there had been no revolution on its territory in 1848 while every single continental European country was going through hard times, this is why Europe always needed a little more time to make it up to the British level. I am speaking about industry as a whole, influence in global trade, naval warfare, development of communications, arbitration rate and also technological and scientifically research brilliance. Just before the Crimean War, Britain was thought to be the most powerful, with France and Prussia country in Europe for all the reasons I mentioned before.
The Victorian Era was at a peak when Pox Britannica was celebrated at the 1851 Universal Exhibition, Great Britain was on the front of the stage. A special facility was built for the occasion, all made out of steel and glass, reflecting technological progress : The Crystal Palace Hall. More than 6 million people attended this exhibition while people in continental Europe shot at each other in the streets. We can say that because Britain was liberal, bourgeois, constitutional and industrial to the most and at the same time, 19 the century was Britain’s century.
When modern heavily industrialized Helmsman’s Germany defeated France and Austria, the balance of power therefore opposed first of all these two countries. Interests were now fighting as the race to colonization was beginning, the British being world’s gamesters, when the Germans began to overproduce ships, people in England became to think that it would become a problem. A diplomatic revolution occurred in the following years. 2. Colonialism, diplomacy and war The last part of the long nineteenth century was a proper race to territorial expansion, overwhelming nationalism and a diplomatic intrigue.