The steps are preparation, relationship building, the exchange of task-related information, persuasion, and concessions and agreement (Dresser 2014). Everyone uses negotiation everyday of their lives and of course negotiation is a great part of how an NC functions and is used internationally for a major deals.
Stage One: Preparation In this step the company or person doing the negotiation would have to carefully prepare for the negotiation which would in include getting a translator because of the culture difference if there is one, as well as preparing and comparing profiles of the negotiator (Dresser 2014, p. 146). For example in the article from the Wall Street Journal about Germany and the Urging of Ukraine to start the negotiation process once again for the line separating the government-controlled areas, they need to have background information before starting this process (Darer 2014).
For example if they negotiation came to a halt what caused the stop. Also if they what to negotiate they need to look back at the past negotiation and see if they can pick back up where they left off or if they need to begin again and redo the whole negotiation. They also need to take into consideration the variables in the negotiation process. For this particular case Germany would have to consider the basic conception of the negotiation process, significance of the type of issues, nature of persuasive arguments, and value of time (Dresser 2014, p. 147).
The reason those are important is because in the basic conception of negotiation process they need to know if it is a competitive recess or problem solving approach, in their case it would be problem solving (Dresser 2014, p. 147). The significance of the type of issue is important because Germany needs to who to approach the issue if it is price or focus on the relationship (Dresser 2014, p. 147). Next the nature of persuasive arguments would be how Germany would influence Ukraine to decide on the line agreement and should they solely base it on rational arguments (Dresser 2014, p. 147).
The last variable that pertains to the Germany and Ukraine negation is the value of time, do they need more time or what is the flexibility (Dresser 2014, p, 147). After preparation they can continue onto the long term effects of the negotiation process. Stage Two: Relationship Building Relationship building is the process of getting to know one’s contacts in a host country and building mutual trust before embarking on business discussions and transactions (Dresser 2014, p. 147-148). In Germany’s case they already know most of Ukrainian contacts since they have dealt with them in the past.
Their contact groups actually include Russia, Ukraine, and the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe, or COSEC (Darer 2014). In the book Dresser talk about the connection with relationship building and reparation and if you don’t prepare it could go south for you in the end like Fisher and Lazy (Dresser 2014, p. 148). In this article Mr.. Steiner’s even did an exchange of hundreds of prisoners to the Ukraine government which could be a beneficial step in the relationship building (Darer 2014).
Stage Three: Exchanging Task-Related Information This step Dresser describes it as each side making a presentation and stating their position, having a question and answer session, and alternatives may be presented (Dresser 2014, p. 148). In the case for Germany and the Ukraine this exchanging of task-related information may have already appended once before but it is important it happen again just in case any one idea has changed or any information has changed. From what Darer writes it sounds like the contact groups has not responded to Germany’s request for signatories (Darer 2014).
Stage FOUr: Persuasion In this stage the art of persuasion is discussed which from my own personal experience is the most important of all the stages. With this stage alone could change the course of the negotiation for either side. But in the textbook Dresser talks about the international mangers and their difficulty reading the rebel and nonverbal communication behaviors (Dresser 2014, p. 148-149). If Germany truly wants Ukraine to come back to the negotiation they need to persuade them to see the value of returning to the negotiation.
Studies have also showed that using promises, threats, and certain tactics are used by skillful negotiators so if either Germany or Ukraine can use that to their advantage they can make this process go a lot smoother (Dresser 2014, p. 148-149). Though those tactics are considered the “dirty tricks” some people and countries still use them to get their idea or point across (Dresser 2014, p. 148-149). Another tactic Germany and Ukraine could use would be the slight use of nonverbal messages (Dresser 2014, p. 148-149).
The use of voice intonation, facial and body expression, eye contact, dress, and timing is also a major part of the persuasion stage (Dresser 2014, p. 148-149). If someone can uphold themselves as a confident and comfortable person when negotiating then the people they are negotiating with will fall into their thought process.