The modern concern in biofuel research isscreening for existence or new biomasses with extractable phytochemicals oractive components that would be useful as food and beauty products, nutritionalsupplements and pharmaceutical products, which may be more attractive to peopleas result of their natural-based (Abbas et al. 1992). Accordingto Nawash et al. (2013), about 363 vascular plant species that consideredmedicinal plants, belonging to 263 genera and 86 families, which present around20% of the flora of Jordan, such as They used Thymus bovei Benth.and Achillea fragrantissima (Forssk.) used for curingrespiratory disturbances, and gastrointestinal disorders including diarrhea andstomach pains, also Achillea santolina L.
used for gastrointestinal disorders,while Artemisiaherba-alba Asson treat gastrointestinal disorders,respiratory, pain and wounds. Other plants such as Ducrosia flabellifoliaBoiss was used to relive general pain and jaundice, and ParonychiaargenteaLam. for renal disorders, while Teucrium capitatum L. used for generalpain, gastrointestinal disorders, wounds and diabetes (Nawash et al., 2013). Phytotherapyis widely used in the Gulf region, even though the medicinal plants areavailable in several local market (souqs), however the number ofdoctors people thatperform traditional and folk medicine in unknown (Phondani et al.
, 2016). Although,the BahrainiGulf medicinal flora has have receivedinsignificant attention, few studies are available. a A studyby Abbas et al. (1992) indicated that there are 52 plants species in49 genera and 20 families considered as medicinal plants, 20 species species out ofthese plantof them found to be indigenous and arewere used in traditional herbal treatments for numerous disorders. Additionally,at least 92 medicinal plants species in Saudi Arabia are validsource of remedies such as Anastatica hierochuntica, Anagyris foetida,Calligonum comosum, Matricaria aurea, Lawsonia inermis, Senna alexandrina, Teucriumpolium, Mentha spp., Withania somnifera, etc., which was used to treatseveral diseases (Al-Asmari et al., 2017).
A particular example provided byAl-Asmari et al. (2017), is Ambrosia maritima and Gingko bilobathat have a beneficial effect in treating injuries of stings of differentscorpion species; in addition to 37 plants families provide treatment to reducethe symptoms of envenomation. Accordingto study conducted by Cybulska et al. (2014) in United Arab of EmaritEmirate(UAE), the following plants studied for their beneficial components and theiruses. Halocnemum strobilaceum discovered to provide interesting medicaland pharmaceutical properties such as, having Phytosterols phytosterols thatusually used to minimize the cholesterol levels in blood, and are contributor inthe production of synthetic human progesterone. In addition, Salsola annuapresent anti-inflammatory properties.
Salicornia europea in UAE have oleanolicacid glucoside that has been characterized to provide anti-diabetogenic activitieson rats, also contain chikusetsusaponin methyl ester that found to work as an agentfor anti-obesity, Calenduloside E6′-methyl ester that has been recently showed cytotoxicity activity againstcolon cancer cells in mice. Flavonoid compounds also found in S. europaea,which are suggestedof beingresponsible for the antimicrobial effect.
Suaeda maritima reported to havehepatoprotective properties, activity against human HIV, and provideantibacterial properties, while Suaeda vermiculata recalled for its hypolipidemicand hypoglycemic properties, and suspected to provide active components againstcancer. Avicennia marina have been proven to show activity againstcardiovascular diseases, atherosclerosis, autoimmune disorder, diabetes. Tetraenaqatarense found to have high antimicrobial activity was against pathogenssuch as Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichiacoli, and Candida albicans (Cybulska et al.
, 2014). Severalmedicinal plants used in Qatar has have been reported,and result with different uses of medicinal plants values suchas, The bark obtained from the stem of Tecomella undulata (locallycalled: Farfar) is used as a treatment for syphilis, urinary disorders,gonorrhoea, enlargement of spleen, leucoderma and liver diseases, traditionallyits flower used for hepatitis and its seeds used against abscess (Phondani etal., 2016). Zygophyllum quatarense H. that used forintestinal pains and anti-inflammatory, Capparis spinosa usually usedfor expectorant, tonic, and anthelminthic (Mahasneh, 2002). Aerva javanica(locally called: Tuwaim) is used externally in traditional medicine it toremove swelling, reduce inflammation and treatment of wounds and sores, itsflowers and roots are used to relive kidney problems and rheumatism, while itsseeds are known to treat headaches, and treat toothache by a gargle is madefrom it (Phondani et al., 2016). Moreover, Lotus halophilus Boiss that usedfor tonic and sedative, while Pulicaria gnaphaloides used by decoction fortonic and dysentery, also Avicenna marina was detected to be used inQatar for decoction, and astringent (Mahasneh, 2002).
Alhagi graecorumBoiss. (locally called: Aaqool) the whole plant is used for curingjaundice, cataracts, painful joints, migraine and as an aphrodisiac. Anastaticahierochuntica L. (locally called: Kaf maryam) is widely reported to be usedas a charm and herbal aid in childbirth, and it is found in the local marketsof Qatar as well as other Arabian countries, usually the dried plant is soakedin water and when it has unfurled the water is drunk by the expectant mother(Phondani et al., 2016).
Limonium axillare also used for tonic andastringent, Leucaena glauca used for diuretic and expectorant (Mahasneh,2002). Boerhavia elegans Choisy (locally named: Hadimdam) used asmedicine of urinary tract and kidney disorders, and blood purification inbaluch tribe, and Calligonum comosum L. (locally named: Abal) It is usedin a balm for skin diseases (Phondani et al.
, 2016). Ziziphus nummulariaused to treat respiratory problems, astringent and mouthwash, and Medicaagolaciniata used for abortifacient and anti-inflammatory. Ocimmumbasilicum used for abortifacient, anti-diarrhoeic, diuretic,and gargle(Mahasneh, 2002). Additionally, Capparis cartilaginea (locally named:Shafallah) It is used for bruises, headache, childbirth, paralysis, earache,snakebite and swelling, while Leucas inflata Benth. (locally named:rihana) traditional used to treat many diseases such as cold, cough, diarrhoeaand inflammatory skin disorder (Phondani et al., 2016).