The renal disorders, while Teucrium capitatum L. used

The modern concern in biofuel research is
screening for existence or new biomasses with extractable phytochemicals or
active components that would be useful as food and beauty products, nutritional
supplements and pharmaceutical products, which may be more attractive to people
as result of their natural-based (Abbas et al. 1992).

            According
to Nawash et al. (2013), about 363 vascular plant species that considered
medicinal plants, belonging to 263 genera and 86 families, which present around
20% of the flora of Jordan, such as They used Thymus bovei Benth.
and Achillea fragrantissima (Forssk.) used for curing
respiratory disturbances, and gastrointestinal disorders including diarrhea and
stomach pains, also Achillea santolina L. used for gastrointestinal disorders,
while Artemisiaherba-alba Asson treat gastrointestinal disorders,
respiratory, pain and wounds. Other plants such as Ducrosia flabellifolia
Boiss was used to relive general pain and jaundice, and Paronychiaargentea
Lam. for renal disorders, while Teucrium capitatum L. used for general
pain, gastrointestinal disorders, wounds and diabetes (Nawash et al., 2013).  

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            Phytotherapy
is widely used in the Gulf region, even though the medicinal plants are
available in several local market (souqs), however the number of
doctors people that
perform traditional and folk medicine in unknown (Phondani et al., 2016). Although,
the Bahraini
Gulf medicinal flora has have received
insignificant attention, few studies are available. a A study
by Abbas et al. (1992) indicated that there are 52 plants species in
49 genera and 20 families considered as medicinal plants, 20 species species out of
these plantof them found to be indigenous and are
were used in traditional herbal treatments for numerous disorders. Additionally,
at least 92 medicinal plants species in Saudi Arabia are valid
source of remedies such as Anastatica hierochuntica, Anagyris foetida,
Calligonum comosum, Matricaria aurea,  Lawsonia inermis, Senna alexandrina, Teucrium
polium, Mentha spp., Withania somnifera, etc., which was used to treat
several diseases (Al-Asmari et al., 2017). A particular example provided by
Al-Asmari et al. (2017), is Ambrosia maritima and Gingko biloba
that have a beneficial effect in treating injuries of stings of different
scorpion species; in addition to 37 plants families provide treatment to reduce
the symptoms of envenomation.

            According
to study conducted by Cybulska et al. (2014) in United Arab of EmaritEmirate
(UAE), the following plants studied for their beneficial components and their
uses. Halocnemum strobilaceum discovered to provide interesting medical
and pharmaceutical properties such as, having Phytosterols phytosterols that
usually used to minimize the cholesterol levels in blood, and are contributor in
the production of synthetic human progesterone. In addition, Salsola annua
present anti-inflammatory properties. Salicornia europea in UAE have oleanolic
acid glucoside that has been characterized to provide anti-diabetogenic activities
on rats, also contain chikusetsusaponin methyl ester that found to work as an agent
for anti-obesity,  Calenduloside E
6′-methyl ester that has been recently showed cytotoxicity activity against
colon cancer cells in mice. Flavonoid compounds also found in S. europaea,
which are suggested
of being
responsible for the antimicrobial effect. Suaeda maritima reported to have
hepatoprotective properties, activity against human HIV, and provide
antibacterial properties, while Suaeda vermiculata recalled for its hypolipidemic
and hypoglycemic properties, and suspected to provide active components against
cancer. Avicennia marina have been proven to show activity against
cardiovascular diseases, atherosclerosis, autoimmune disorder, diabetes. Tetraena
qatarense found to have high antimicrobial activity was against pathogens
such as Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia
coli, and Candida albicans (Cybulska et al., 2014).

            Several
medicinal plants used in Qatar has have been reported,
and result with different uses of medicinal plants values such
as, The bark obtained from the stem of Tecomella undulata (locally
called: Farfar) is used as a treatment for syphilis, urinary disorders,
gonorrhoea, enlargement of spleen, leucoderma and liver diseases, traditionally
its flower used for hepatitis and its seeds used against abscess (Phondani et
al., 2016). Zygophyllum quatarense H. that used for
intestinal pains and anti-inflammatory, Capparis spinosa usually used
for expectorant, tonic, and anthelminthic (Mahasneh, 2002). Aerva javanica
(locally called: Tuwaim) is used externally in traditional medicine it to
remove swelling, reduce inflammation and treatment of wounds and sores, its
flowers and roots are used to relive kidney problems and rheumatism, while its
seeds are known to treat headaches, and treat toothache by a gargle is made
from it (Phondani et al., 2016). Moreover, Lotus halophilus Boiss that used
for tonic and sedative, while Pulicaria gnaphaloides used by decoction for
tonic and dysentery, also Avicenna marina was detected to be used in
Qatar for decoction, and astringent (Mahasneh, 2002). Alhagi graecorum
Boiss. (locally called: Aaqool) the whole plant is used for curing
jaundice, cataracts, painful joints, migraine and as an aphrodisiac. Anastatica
hierochuntica L. (locally called: Kaf maryam) is widely reported to be used
as a charm and herbal aid in childbirth, and it is found in the local markets
of Qatar as well as other Arabian countries, usually the dried plant is soaked
in water and when it has unfurled the water is drunk by the expectant mother
(Phondani et al., 2016). Limonium axillare also used for tonic and
astringent, Leucaena glauca used for diuretic and expectorant (Mahasneh,
2002). Boerhavia elegans Choisy (locally named: Hadimdam) used as
medicine of urinary tract and kidney disorders, and blood purification in
baluch tribe, and Calligonum comosum L. (locally named: Abal) It is used
in a balm for skin diseases (Phondani et al., 2016). Ziziphus nummularia
used to treat respiratory problems, astringent and mouthwash, and Medicaago
laciniata used for abortifacient and anti-inflammatory. Ocimmum
basilicum used for abortifacient, anti-diarrhoeic, diuretic,and gargle
(Mahasneh, 2002). Additionally, Capparis cartilaginea (locally named:
Shafallah) It is used for bruises, headache, childbirth, paralysis, earache,
snakebite and swelling, while Leucas inflata Benth. (locally named:
rihana) traditional used to treat many diseases such as cold, cough, diarrhoea
and inflammatory skin disorder (Phondani et al., 2016).