The sensory and motor information travels between the

The human brain is one of the most significant systems
in our body. Every component of the brain must work together in order to keep
the body functioning and performing properly. Concepts regarding structural and functional development
of the brain have changed vividly over the last generation. The human brain is split up into three major layers i.e.,
the Hindbrain, the Midbrain, and the Forebrain. The Hindbrain is the
well-protected central part of the brain. This includes the cerebellum,
reticular formation, and brain stem, which are mostly responsible for some of
the basic functions of life such as breathing and movement. The brain stem
contains the pons and medulla oblongata. The Hindbrain also tends to consist of
some of the oldest parts of the brain, which may vary and look different from species
to species. The Midbrain makes up part of the brain stem. This is located
between the Hindbrain and Forebrain. It is mainly through the Midbrain that
most of the sensory and motor information travels between the Forebrain and the
spinal cord. The Forebrain is the most anterior division of the developing
vertebrate brain, containing the most complex networks in the central nervous
system. It is the Forebrain that distinguishes the human brain from other
vertebrate brains. 

The executive functions refer to a number of functions centered largely
in the front and prefrontal cortex of the brain. This area is connected with
coordination and combination of emotions, thinking, memory, and body or
physical movement. Thus, the executive functions play a critical role in
integrating many processes, and therefore in the problem-solving and control
processes referred to earlier. Goldberg (2001) compares the executive functions
to the role that an orchestra conductor plays. The conductor does not play an
instrument or in any way do what the members of the orchestra are doing but,
rather, is in charge of how the entire piece of music comes together,
determining how loud the oboe plays and when the violins need to come to the foreground,
and influencing how the soloists are integrated. All of this is happening as
the conductor moderates the volume, pace, and rhythm of the music. What the
conductor does for the orchestra is somewhat analogous to what the group of
functions referred to as the executive functions do in the brain. They combine
elements of affect, self-regulation, working memory, and inhibition. Denkla
(1999) also suggests that the executive functions are central to higher-order
cortical operations and have strong overlap with attention and memory.

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