The The BET surface area and total pore

The rind and pulp waste of
jackfruit were used as precursor for preparation of activated carbon as
described by Nagalakshmi and other workers 2015. Proximate analysis of these
precursors showed that they have high carbon content (39 %) and low ash content
(2 %). Activated carbon produced at 600 °C and impregnation ratio of 1 by using
K2CO3 as activating agent indicated high surface area
(987 m2/g) and good yield (62 %). The presence of both micro and
mesopores on this carbon may facilitate the adsorption of different types of
pollutants with varying sizes. In order to introduce different functional
groups, the obtained activated carbon (namely JC600) was divided
into two parts. One part was subjected to liquid phase oxidation with1N HNO3
(JCHNO3)
and the other part was soaked in 1N KOH (JCKOH) for 3 hr and
evaporated at 110 oC. Both carbons were washed with distilled water
until filtrate showed neutral pH and were dehydrated in an oven overnight at
105 oC. Temperature programmed desorption analysis revealed that JCHNO3 and JCKOH were having more oxygen
content than JC600. All the three activated carbons were thermally
stable up to 300 oC. Hence, these materials can be used for
adsorption of pollutants from aqueous solutions at elevated temperatures also.
Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis pointed out that
surface chemistry was peculiar and specific for each activated carbon. From
X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis report, it can be concluded that the interlayer
spacing of all activated carbons was nearly same. In X-ray photoelectron
spectroscopy (XPS) analysis, C1s and O1s spectra of activated carbons
reinforced the interpretation of FTIR that the surface chemistry of three
carbons was entirely different. It was found that JCHNO3 contained high percentage of carboxylic acids,
JCKOH was enriched with more number of hydroxyl functional groups
and JC600 was having hydrophobic surface with less oxygen content.
Hence, these carbons can be used to adsorb different types of organic
pollutants from water.

Phosphoric acid was used as
activating agent as discussed by Devarly and other workers, 2008. They observed
that well-developed pore sizes could be detected for the carbons prepared at
activation temperatures of 450 and 550 °C. The BET surface area and total pore
volumes were 907–1260 m2/g and 0.525–0.733 cm3/g,
respectively.

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Removal of lead from aqueous
solution on commercial activated carbons and carbons prepared from jackfruit
peel was described by Nor et al (2015). Result
indicates that the commercial activated carbon (98 % of lead removal) gave
better result as compared to jackfruit peel (80 %) activated carbon due to the
commercial activated carbon has a very well develop pores structures.
Adsorption isotherms reveal that the experimental data were correlated well by
the Freundlich isotherm (jackfruit peel activated carbon) and Langmuir model
(commercial carbon). The adsorption kinetics of lead on these carbons followed
the pseudo second order model indicating the adsorption controlled by
chemisorptions.