Unit 1

scientific method
  • Ask a Question
  • Do Background Research
  • Construct a Hypothesis
  • Test Your Hypothesis by Doing an Experiment
  • Analyze Your Data and Draw a Conclusion
  • Communicate Your Results
Controlled Experiment
is a test where the person conducting the test only changes one variable at a time in order to isolate the results. An experiment where all subjects involved in the experiment are treated exactly the same except for one deviation is an example of a control experiment.
control group
 gives reliable baseline data to compare their results with. For example, a medical study will use two groups, giving one set of patients the real medicine and the other a placebo, in order to rule out the placebo effect.
experimental group
 is the group in anexperiment that receives the variable being tested. One variable is tested at a time. The experimental group is compared to a control group, which does not receive the test variable. In this way, experimental groups are used to find answers in an experiment.
independent variable
is the one that is changed by the scientist.
dependent variable
 is what you measure in the experiment and what is affected during the experiment. 
topographic map
is a type of map characterized by large-scale detail and quantitative representation of relief, usually now using contour lines, but historically using a variety of methods. 
Relief
a feeling of reassurance and relaxation following release from anxiety or distress
contour lines
drawn on a map connecting points of equal elevation. If you walk along a contour line you neither gain or lose elevation.
contour intervals
 is the vertical distance or difference in elevation between contour lines. Index contours are bold or thicker lines that appear at every fifth contour line. If the numbers associated with specificcontour lines are increasing, the elevation of the terrain is also increasing.
componenets of a map
were drawn with East at the top (meaning that the direction “up” on the map…. Maps of the zonal and meridional components of wind are frequently 
lattitude
the angular distance of a place north or south of the earth’s equator, or of a celestial object north or south of the celestial equator, usually expressed in degrees and minutes.
longitude
is the angular distance, in degrees, minutes, and seconds, of a point east or west of the Prime (Greenwich) Meridian. Lines of longitude are often referred to as meridians.