# UNIT 1

 Breoni Williams
 I’m 15 years old and I am a freshman at Olympic Highschool.
 Earth Science
 Earth science or geoscience is an all-encompassing term that refers to the fields ofscience dealing with planet Earth.
 Geology
 the science that deals with the earth’s physical structure and substance, its history, and the processes that act on it.
 Oceanology
 The branch of earth science that studies the ocean
 Meteorology
 The scientific study of the atmosphere.
 Astronomy
 The branch of science that deals with space and physical universe as a whole.
 Environmental Science
 The branch of science dealing with the physical, chemical, biological conditions.
 Scientific Method
 a method of research in which a problem is identified, relevant data aregathered, a hypothesis is formulated from these data, and thehypothesis is empirically tested.
 Controlled Experiment
 Experiment where all sujects are treated the exact same.
 Control Group
 The plain group, used to compare the experimental groups to. By comparing you can measure the change. This is sometimes considered the “normal” group.
 Experimental Group
 The group that receives the variable being tested. There will be ONE thing that is different in these groups. It will be something that the scientist changes, not something that just happens on its own.
 Independent Variable
 This is the factor being tested. The scientist chose it and made it different in each group.
 Dependent Variable
 This “depends” on the independent variable. The independent variable CAUSES it to happen. It is the thing that is measured and recored during and after the experiment. It happens on its own, it is the results.
 Topographic Map
 A type of map characterized by large-scale detail.
 Relief
 The amount of change in elevation on the surface of the Earth.
 Contour Lines
 Line on a topographic map that indicates elevation; Every point along a contour line has the same elevation.
 Contour Intervals
 On a topographic map, tells the distance in elevation between adjacent contour lines.
 Contour Map Rules
 Basically a guide to reading topographic maps
 Components of a Map
 The main things on a map.
 Lattitude
 Includes the equator which is the line of lattitude at 0 degrees and runs north and south.
 Longitude
 Includes the Prime Meridian which is the longitude line at 0 degrees. Runs east to west.