Unit 1

Renewable resources
resources that are replenished in a period of time that will allow them to be replenished for hujan consumption.
Nonrenewable resources
resources for which a fixed quanitiy is available for human use.
Sustainability
the practice of using a resource at a rate that is less than or equal to the rate at which it is naturally replenished
per capita
per person
gross domestic product
annual market value of all goods and services produced by all firms and organizations, foreign and domestic, operating within a country.
ecological footprint
the amount of biologically productive land and water that is required to provide all of the resources to support the lifestyle of the owner of the footprint, as well as to asorb all of the pollution produced by the process.
ecosystem services
services provided by the environment such as photosynthesis and pollination
Aldo Leopold
Early environmentalist know for the land ethics, stating that humans are only one member of a complex community and should not abuse nature. No one species has the right to deny another species the right on another species
point source pollution
pollution originating from one source such as a smoke stack
nonpoint source pollution
pollution source that introduces pollutants into the environment over a large area rather that at a single point such as runoff from an oil spill
controlled experiment
an experiment in which all variables are kept the same except the one being tested
independent variable
in variable in the experiment that is being tested
dependent variabale
the variable in the experiment the changes as a result of the independent variable
developed country
highly industrialized; high GDP
devopling country
very little industry; low GDP
anthropogenic
man-made chemicals in the environment
pH
a logrithmic scale covering a range of 0-14 that is used to differentiate between acidic and basic environments.
half-life
the time it take for one half of a radioactive material to decay
heat
total kinetic energy of all randomly moving atoms,ions, or molecules within a given substances, excluding the overall motion of the whole object
power
rate at which energy is used
First Law of Thermodynamics
Energy is neither created or destroyed, only changed in form.
Second Law of Thermodynamics
In all energy conversions some low quality heaqt mut alway be produced. This prevents the reversal of an energy transformations and the construction of an device with 100% efficiency
open system
systems that exchange both energy and matter across their boundaries
closed systems
systems that exchanged only energy but not matter across their boundaries.
isolated systems
systems that exchange neither energy nor matter across their boundaries.
positive feedback loop
feedback loop that causes a system to change further in the same direction
negative feedback system
feedback systme that causes a system to cahnge further in the opposite directionl
input
energy and matter that enters a system
output
energy and matter that leaves a system
poverty
without the nmeans to provide for daiy needs; obstacle to sustainability.
affluence
the rapid unsustainable consumption of resources that is associated with the lifestyles of developed countries.