If there are 50 births and 30 deaths in a population of 1000 people, what is the % population change?
The capacity to do work by performing mechanical, physical, chemical, or electrical tasks or to cause a heat transfer between two objects at different temperatures.
Ability of a form of energy to do useful work. Low temp heat -> low quality energyHigh temp heat -> high energy quality
The 2nd law of thermodynamics says…
In any conversion of heat energy to useful work, some of the initial energy input is always degraded to a low-quality, more dispersed less useful energy (usually low temp)
6CO2 + 6H2O ==> C6H12O6 + 6O2
Complex process that takes place in cells of green plants.Radiant energy from sun is used to combine CO2 and water (H2O) to produce oxygen and carbohydrates (such as glucose, (C6H12O6).
Define: Respiration (aerobic)
Complex process that occurs in the cells of most living organism, in which nutrient organic molecules such as glucose (C6H12O6) combine with oxygen and produce carbon dioxide and water and energy.
Organic matter produced by plants and other photosynthetic producers; total dry weight of all living organisms that can be supported at each trophic level in a food chain or web.
Define: Trophic Level
All organisms that are the same number of energy transfers away from the original source of energy.
Define: Food Web
Complex network of many interconnected food chains and feeding relationships.
Define: Food Chain
Series of organisms in which one eats or decomposes the preceding one.
Community of different species interacting with one another and with the chemical and physical factors making up its nonliving environment.
Group of individual organisms of the SAME species living within a particular area.
Populations of ALL species living and interacting in an area at a particular time.
Pyramid of Numbers
A diagram representing the number of organisms of a particular type that can be supported at each trophic level from a given input of solar energy at the producer trophic level in a food chain or food web.
Pyramid of Energy
A diagram representing the flow of energy through each trophic level in a food chain or food web. Typically 10% energy transferred to organisms in each energy transfer
Pyramid of Biomass
A diagram representing the biomass or total dry weight of alll living organisms that can be supported at each trophic level in a food chain/web.
A place or type of place where an organism or population of organisms live
The living organisms that make up the biotic parts of the ecosystem.
Nonliving component of an ecosystem.
Transitional zone in which one type of ecosystem tends to merge with another ecosystem.
Study of the interactions of living organisms with one another and with their non-living environment of matter and energy; study of the structure and functions of nature.
Total way of life or role of a species in an ecosystem. includes all physical and biological conditions a species needs to live and reproduce in an ecoystem.
Fundamental Niche vs. Realized Niche
A fundamental niche is the full potential range of the physical, chemical, and biological factors a species can use if there is no competition from other species whereas a realized niche is parts of the fundamental niche of a species that are actually used by that species. Fundamental (potential) it rhymeeesRealized (what is actually used)
species that play roles affecting many other organisms in an ecosystem
a species that serve as early warnings that a community or an ecosystem is being degraded
species with a narrow ecological niche.1. only able to live in one type of habitat2.
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not very tolerable to climate change3. use only one or few types of foods
opposite of specialist (broad ecological niche)
1. reproduce early2. lots of offspring, don’t raise them 3. small life span
species that produce a few, often fairly large offspring and raise them to reproduction age
animal that feeds on other animals
animal that can use both plants and other animals as food sources
organism that feeds on dead organisms that were killed by other organisms/died naturally
organism that uses solar energy (green plant) or chemical energy (bacteria) to manufacture the organic compounds it needs as nutrients from simple inorganic compounds
an organisms that only eats plants
consumer organism that feeds off parts of dead organisms and wastes of living organisms
process by which a particular beneficial gene is passed down through younger generations making it easier for them to adapt to certain environmental conditions
variety of dif. species
What is the formula for GPP?
GPP = NPP + Respiration
What is the formula for Respiration?
Initial dark – dark final
Formula for NPP?
light final – light initial
Range of Tolerance
range of chemical and physical conditions that must be maintained for populations of a particular species to stay alive and grow
What is the GPP?
The gross primary productivity aka the rate at which an ecosystem’s producers capture and store a given amount of chemical energy as biomass in a given length of time.
involves exponential population growth when the population is small and a steady decrease in population growth with time as population encounters environmental resistance
How have some species reduced/avoided competition?
dividing up of scarce resources so that species with similar needs use them at different time, in different ways or in different places
pursuit and ambush, hide and ambush, camouflage, chemical warfare
When 2 species involved in a symbiotic relationship interact in ways that benefit both of them
When 2 species involved in a symbiotic relationship interact in ways that benefits one and doesn’t affect the other
When 2 species involved in a symbiotic relationship interact in ways that benefits one and HARMS the other
When 2 species involved in a symbiotic relationship interact in ways that harms one and doesn’t affect the other (ex.
an elephant stomps on some plants)
members of one species feed directly on another
sometimes one species eliminates another species in a particular area through competition for limited resources
If there are 60 births and 20 deaths in a population of 1000 people, what is the % population change?
What type of pyramid always looks the same?
Pyramid of energy (Big on bottom -> smaller)
Net Primary Productivity represents…
plant growth per unit area per unit time2. energy available per unit area per unit time3. the energy available to herbivores4. the amount of biomass remaining after some depletion by a plant’s cellular respiration
If a population grows at a MONTHLY rate of 4 %, what is the approximate doubling time in YEARS?
If the doubling time of a population is 13 years, what is the annual growth rate?
Which type of species would make a poor indicator species? r or k selected?
What is an interacting group of organisms of different species that occupy the same geographic location called?
The combination of biotic and abiotic factors interacting with one another is called…
The total energy stored in this trophic level is highest due to the second law of thermodynamics