UNIT 3

Igneous rock

 

Definition: Rock formed by the cooling and solidification of magma and lava
Sentence:
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Ex.2:
Sedimentary rock

 

Definition: formed by deposition of material at Earths surface and within bodies of water
Sentence:
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Ex.2:
Metamorphic rock

 

Definition: Rock that is changed by extreme heat
Sentence:
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Ex.2:
Rock cycle

 

Definition: Idealized cycle of fucks under the earths surface
Sentence:
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Ex.2:
Erosion

 

Definition: The process that removes soil, rock, or dissolved material from one location to another
Sentence:
Ex.1:
Ex.2:
Weathering (Physical and Chemical)

 

Definition: Wear away or the change of appearance or texture of something
Sentence:
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Ex.2:
Soil horizons

 

Definition: A layer that is most times parallel to the soils crust
Sentence:
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Ex.2:
Continental drift

 

Definition: The movement of the Earths continents, relative to each other
Sentence:
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Ex.2:
Theory of plate techtonics

 

Definition: Layer of earth that is divided into a couple dozen of plates
Sentence:
Ex.1:
Ex.2:
Abraham Ortielius

 

Definition: A Flemish cartographer and geographer,and the creator of the first modern atlas
Sentence:
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Arthur Holmes

 

Definition: British geologist
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Alfred Wegner

 

Definition: German polar researcher
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Gondwanaland

 

Definition: Large southern continent
Sentence:
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Laurasia

 

Definition: Large northern continent
Sentence:
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Harry Hess
Definition: Geologist and United States Navy officer in World War II. He was also a founding father of the plate tectonic theory
Sentence:
Ex.1:
Ex.2:
Pangea
Definition: Super continent
Sentence: In world history we learn a lot about Pangaea.
Ex.1: Mesozoic era
Ex.2: combination of several continents
Sea floor spreading
Definition: A process where new oceanic crust is formed through volcanic activity
Sentence:Sea floor spreading involves the plates under the ocean floor.
Ex.1: tectonic plates under the ocean
Ex.2: sea floor spreading and creating waves
Divergent plate booundaries
Definition: Boundary where two plates are moving away from each other
Sentence: Divergent plate boundaries causes magma to rise
Ex.1: oceanic crust
Ex.2: center spreading
Convergent plate booundaries
Definition:tectonic plates or fragments of the lithosphere move toward one another and collide.
Sentence: The lithosphere and the asthenosphere goes below when being pushed together
Ex.1: lithosphere
Ex.2: crust
Transform plate boundaries
Definition:type of fault whose relative motion is predominantly horizontal
Sentence:the two tectonic plates slide against each other.
Ex.1: creation of fault
Ex.2: continetal crust
Cindercone Volcano
Definition:steep conical hill of loose pyroclastic fragments
Sentence: the middle of thus kind of volcano is a cylinder
Ex.1: using loose materials/fragments
Ex.2: ash falling from the sky
Sheild volcano
Definition:volcano usually built almost entirely of fluid magma flows.
Sentence: This volcano produces really strong gasses
Ex.1: magma
Ex.2: gas
Volcanic Effects on the Lithosphere
Definition: ash particles would throw up into the atmosphere.
Sentence: The ash particles are from sometimes other volcanos
Ex.1: ashes
Ex.2: spread out particles
Layers of the earth
Crust
Upper mantle
Lower mantle
Outer core
Inner core
Isostasy
Definition:gravitational equilibrium between Earth’s crust and mantle
Sentence:The gravitational pull keep the things balanced
Ex.1: continental core
Ex.2:oceanic crust
Faults
Definition: crack in the Earth’s crust
Sentence: these two faults pull away and push together
Ex.1: back and fourth motion
Ex.2: cracks
Seismic waves
Definition: energy that travels through the Earth’s layers
Sentence: This energy travels through the earths layers and makes vibrations
Ex.1: time
Ex.2: wave amount
Focus and epicenter
Definition: point on the Earth’s surface located directly above the focus. focus is the location where the earthquake
Tsunami
Definition: long high sea wave
Sentence: In a tsunami the sea extends
Ex.1: destroyed homes
Ex.2: destroyed cars
Composite cone volcano
Definition: volcano built up by many layers
Sentence: this volcano has a kind of convergent boundary
Ex.1: tectonic plates moving up
Ex.2: formation of volcano