Unit 4

ANWR
Artic National Wildlife Refuge, area setaside mainly to protect wildlife the size of south carolina,
Fossil Fuel
Highly combustable substances formed from the remains of organisms from past geological ages.
Electricity
secondary form of energy that is easier to trafer over long distances and apply to variety of uses.
Aerobic or Anaerobic

Aerobic decomposition is in the presence of air.

Anaerobic decomposition is with little or no oxygen.

Net Energy
expresses the difference between energy returned and energy invested.
EROI
energy returned on investment.
Coal
organic matter that was compressed under high pressure to form dense, solid carbon strutures.
Subsurface Mining
shafts are dug deep into the ground, and networks of tunnels are dug or blasted out to follow coal seams.
Strip Mining
heavy machinery removes huge amounts of earth to expose and extract the coal.
Mountaintop Removal
Strip mining operations that have occured in large scales, in some cases entire mountaintops are lopped off.
Natural Gas
consist of primarily of methane, CH4, and typically includes varying amounts of other volatile hydrocarbons.
Crude Oil/ Petroleum
Mixture of hundreds of different types of hydrocarbon molecules characterized by carbon chains of different lengths.
Primary Extration
the initial drilling and pumping of available oil.
Secondary Extration
solvents are used or underground rocks are flushed with water or steam to remove additional oil.
“Peak Oil”
point of maximum production of petroleum in the worlds, or nation, after which oil production declines.
Oil Sands
are deposits of moist sand and clay containing 1-20% bitumen, a thick and heavy form of petroleum that is rich in carbon and poor in hydrogen.
Oil shale
is sedimentary rock filled with kerogen and can be processed to produce liquid petroleum.
Methane Hydrate
solid consisting of molecules of methane within a crystal lattice of water ice molecules occurs underground in some artic locations and more widely under the seafloor on the continental shelves.
Acid Drainage
occurs when sulfide minerals in newly exposed rock surfaces react with oxygen and rainwater produce sulfuric acid.
Energy Conservation
practice of reduciong energy use to extend the lifetimes of our nonrenewable energy supplies, to be less wasteful, and to reduce our environmental impact.
Nuclear Power
the energy that holds together prtons and neutrons within the nucleus of an atom.
Nuclear Fission
the splitting apart of atomic nuclei.
Three Mile island
plant in pennsyvalnia where in 1979 the U.S experiences it most serious nuclear power plant accident.
Nuclear meltdown
combination of mechanical failure, human error, coolant water drained from the reactor vessel, temperatures rose inside the reactor core, and metal surronding the uranium fuel rods began to melt, realeasing radiation.
Chernobyl
plant in Ukraine experianced the most severe power plant accident the world has yet seen.
Yucca Mountain
remote part of Nevada desert where await development as the central site of nuclear waste for the U.S.
Biomass Energy
it is harness from many types of plant matter, including wood, matter of agricultural crops, and combustible animal waste.
Biofuels
biomass sourced converted into fuel primarily to power automobiles.
hydroelectric power
use of kinetic energy of moving water to turn turbines and generate electricity.
“New” renewable energy sources
energy from the sun, wind, earth’s geothermal energy, and movement of ocean water. they are not used in a wide scale in modern society, and they are mostly likely going to become a larger role in the future.
Active solar energy
makes use of technological devices to focus, move, and store solar energy.
Passive solar energy
most common way to harness solar energy, building are designed to maximize direct absorption of sunlight.
Wind energy
we can harness it by using wind turbines that convert wind’s kinetic energy into electrical power.
NIMBY
Not in my backyard. The feeling of the people when it comes to wind turbines because they dont want to see it in their properties.
Geothermal Energy
energy that is generated deep within the earth.
Ocean energy sources
the different forms of energy that we are able to get from the ocean. Three are from the motion of the water while one is from the temperature.
OTEC
Ocean thermal energy conversion is beased in gradient in temperature.
Hydrogen Fuel
atoms of hydrogen are first stripped of their electrons, the electrons move from a negative electrode to a positive one, creating a current and generating electricity.
nutrient pollution
Is when pesticides or runoff from farms get into the water causing there to be a depletion of oxygen in the water.
pathogens and waterborne pollution
disease causing organisms can enter drinking water when there are contaminated with human waste from inadequate treated sewage or with animal waste from feedlots.
Toxic Chemicals
are chemicals from our own making like pesticides, petroleum products, and other synthetic chemicals.
Sediment
this can be transported in the river and can impair aquatic ecosystems.
Thermal Pollution
when we heat up the water because we use use it for our needs it makes so that that the water is able to hold less oxygen.
Point Source pollution
discrete locations, like factories, or sewer pipes.
non point source pollution
pollution arises in multiple places over large areas, such as farms, city streets, and residential neighborhoods.
water pollution control act (1972)
make it illegal to discharge pollution from a point source without a permit, set standards for industrial wastewater, and funded construction of sewage treatment plants.
Clean Water Act (1977)
this adresses point source pollution but leaves much non point source unregulated making it very dangerous.
Wastewater
refers to water that has been used by humans in some way.
Primary wastewater treatment
the physical removal of contaminants in settling tanks or clarifiers, generally removes about 60% of suspended solids from wastewater.
secondary wastewater treatment
water is stirred and aerated so that aerobic bacteria degrade organic pollutants. roughly 90% of suspended solid pollutants are remove after this step.
Disinfection
when the water after secondary treatment is treated with chlrine and sometimes ultraviolet light to kill bacteria.
Biosolids
when the solid material that was gathered in the treatment process is digested and decompose by microorganisms it is the end result.
Municipal solid waste
is nonliquid waste that comes from homes, institutions, and small businesses.
Industrial solid waste
includes waste from production of consumer goods, mining, agriculture, and petroleum extraction and refining.
hazardous waste
refers to solid or liquid waste that is toxic, chemically reactive, flammable, or corrosive.
waste management
minimizing amount of waste we generate. recovering waste materials and finding ways to recycle them. disposing of waste safely and effectively.
waste stream
the flow of waste as it moves from its sources toward disposal destinations.
sanitary landfill
waste is buried in ground or pilled up in large carefully engineered mounds.
Resource Conversation and Recovery Act (RCRA)

set national standards that all sanitary landfills have to follow.

 

Leachate
liquid that results when susbtances from the trash dissolve in water as rainwater percolates downward.
Incineration
when the trash in landfills is burned before it is buried.
Waste to energy (WTE)
facilities that use the heat of combustion to generate electricity.
Source reduction
reducing the amount of material entering the waste stream.
Material Recovery facilities (MRFs)
where workers and machines sort items using automated processes to separate items by size and weight.
Industrial Ecology
seeks to redesign industrial systems to reduce resource inputs and minimize physical inefficiency while maximizing economic efficiency.
Life cycle analysis
examining the entire life cycle of a product from its orgins tothrough manufacturing, to disposal, and look for ways to make the process more ecologically efficient. 
Electronic waste (E-Waste)
when materials like computers, cell phones, fax machines, and etc are thrown away they create this.
Surface Impoundments
shallow depressions lined with plastic and an impervious material, such as clay.
Deep Well Injection
a well is drilled deep beneath the water table into porous rock, and wastes are injected into it.
Comprehensive Environmental Resource, Compensation and Liabilities Act (CERCLA)
established a federal program to clean up U.S sites polluted with hazardous waste from past activites.
Superfund
identifies sites polluted with hazardous chemicals, take action to protect groundwater near these sites, and clean up the pollution.
Love Canal
a residential neighborhood in Niagara falls,where families were evacuated after toxic chemicals buried by companies and the city over past decades rose to the surface, contaminating homes and an elementary school.
Toxicology
science that examines the effects of poisonous substances on humans and other organisms.
Synthetic chemicals
they are found all around us in our daily lives, and thousands have been manufactured.
Silent spring
it brough the pesticide dichlloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane (DDT) to the attention of the public.
Carcinogens
are chemicals or types of radiation that cause cancer.
Mutagens
chemicals that cause mutations in DNA of organisms.
Teratogens
chemicals that cause harm to the unborn.
Allergens
overactivate the immune system, causing it to respond when not needed.
Neurotoxins
chemicals that attck the nervous system.
Endocrine Disruptors
toxicants that interfere with the endocrine disreptors, or hormone system.
bisphenol-A
it is used in plastics to make them unbreakable.
Bioaccumulation
toxics that build up in an animal.
PCBs
are a class of organic compounds they are used for many things, a concern about them is when burned they realized the toxin dioxin.