Unit 5 Pictionary Cards

94.                    Density

a variety of factors affect water density, more dense water sinks, setting up convection currents.


Earth scientists use density measurements to identify minerals and other solids


1: Space

2: Room



95.     Surface Currents

Surface Ocean Currents. The water at the ocean surface is moved primarily by winds that blow in certain patterns because of the Earth’s spin and the Coriolis Effect. Winds are able to move the top 400 meters of the ocean creating surface ocean currents.



Surface ocean currents from large circular patterns called gyres


1: Ocean

2: Water

96.                           upwelling

Upwelling is an oceanographic phenomenon that involves wind-driven motion of dense, cooler, and usually nutrient-rich water towards the ocean surface, replacing the warmer, usually nutrient-depleted surface water.
Upwelling occurs in the open ocean and along coastlines

97.                             Coriolis Effect

In physics, the Coriolis effect is the apparent deflection of moving objects when the motion is described relative to a rotating reference frame.



The Coriolis effect is caused by the rotation of the Earth and the inertia of the mass experiencing the effect


1.earth’s roation

2. mass

98.                       Deep Ocean Current

Deep ocean currents are driven by density and temperature gradients. Thermohaline circulation is also known as the ocean’sconveyor belt (which refers to deep oceandensity driven ocean basin currents). Thesecurrents, called submarine rivers, flow under the surface of the ocean and are hidden from immediate detection.


Water movements driven by differences in density are also known asthermohaline circulationbecause water density depends on its temperature (thermo) and salinity (haline).



2.water density

99.                            water cycle

the cycle of processes by which water circulates between the earth’s oceans, atmosphere, and land, involving precipitation as rain and snow, drainage in streams and rivers, and return to the atmosphere by evaporation and transpiration.


30 percent of freshwater is in the ground.



2. snow

100.                      ground water

water held underground in the soil or in pores and crevices in rock.


It is stored in and moves slowly through geologic formations of soil, sand and rocks called aquifers.




101.                          surface water

Surface water is water on the surface of the planet such as in a stream, river, lake, wetland, or ocean. It can be contrasted with groundwater and atmospheric water. Non-saline surface water is replenished by precipitation and by recruitment from ground-water.


surface and ground water are two separate entities, so they must be regarded as such.




102.                   Ground Cross Section

water table:the level below which the ground is saturated with water.

permeable layer: layer of porous material (rock or unconsolidated sediment); in an aquifer, the layer through which water freely passes as it moves through the subsurface.

impermeable layer:Artesian (or confined) aquifer: exist where the groundwater is bounded between layers ofimpermeable substances like clay or dense rock. When tapped by a well, water in confined aquifers is forced up, sometimes above the land surface. Artesian well: A well tapping a confined (or artesian) aquifer.

confined aquifer:

Confined aquifers are aquifers that are overlain by a low permeability, confining layer, often made up of clay. The confining layer may offer some protection from surface contamination.
unconfined aquifer:An unconfined aquifer, also called a water-table aquifer, is an aquifer which has the water table as its upper boundary. Unconfined aquifers occur near the ground surface.
pumpedwell:an enclosure in the middle of a ship’s hold that protects the ship’s 
artisian well: well in which water is under pressure; especially : one in which the water flows to the surface naturally. 
zone of saturation:The phreatic zone, or zone of saturation, is the area in an aquifer, below the water table, in which relatively all pores and fractures are saturatedwith water. The phreatic zone defines the lower edge of the vadose zone.
zone of aeration:Zone of Aeration (vadose zone or unsaturated zone) the zone between the land surface and the water table in which the pore spaces between soil and rock particles contain water, air, and/or other gases.
cone of depression:cone of depression occurs in an aquifer when groundwater is pumped from a well. In an unconfined aquifer (water table), this is an actualdepression of the water levels.

103.                              *wells


well water is free

It’s not chlorinated or fluoridated

there are no monthly bills to deal with

saves lots of money



well water may not be as pure

it may pose risks that could cause illness if not addressed

 disease-causing bacteria can enter your well water supply through damaged casings or

through the walls of a dug or shallow well.

Chemicals like arsenic and radon can also contaminate the water from the surrounding rocks, and old pipes can transfer lead into the water.


104.                          *Aquifer Depletion


good drinking water and beneficial for irrigation

it is use all year; it can be found anywhere

it can be renewable as long as it is not contaminated or over used and it is cost effective compared to most surface waters 

water is not lost because of evaporation



cost is greater

 there is impurity from deeper well

water low

105.                    *Salt Water Intrusion


only occurs naturally to some degree in most coastal aquifers, owing to the hydraulic connection between groundwater and seawater.


sea-level rise will increase inundation and salinity along coastal regions worldwide. As water level increases, saltwater encroaches farther inland in many coastal areas.

106.                             *Dams


Recreation (lake)

Flood control downstream

Irrigation potential from water storage

Hydroelectric Power generation capability

Evening out of flow during the year




Change in ecosystems

Flooding upstream (buried by water)

Loss of sediment below stream (delta starvation)

Silting of lake

Fish trapped below dam

Potential dam failure

Evening out of flow during the year (prevents sediment renewal on floodplain)


107.                          *Dam removal


rehabilitation of a healthy aquatic ecosystem that will provide desired ecosystem services. Transporting formerly impounded sediment downstream allowed the formation of important fish spawning habitat including pool and riffle areas and gravel and cobblestone streambed reaches, ultimately increasing the biotic diversity within the river. Dammed rivers result in a more lake-like environment in which there is warmer water, and free-flowing rivers are usually colder environments. Because a free-flowing river contains more cold-water species like salmon, trout, and sturgeon, dam removal promotes economically desirable fisheries.Dam removal may benefit the terrestrial environment as well. 



Dam removal can be very expensive. 

cause supersaturation within the river. 

Depending on the material used to construct the dam and artificial material built up behind the dam, removal may cause large amounts of lethal toxins to be released downstream. Further, removing dams that provide electric power results in the loss of energy generation. This loss may be filled by creating more power from non-clean energy sources like coal. 

108.           *agriculture effects on freshwater

These swamps helped buffer the the effects of hurricanes, cyclones, and tsunamis; it is believed that the loss of coastal wetlands along the Mississippi Delta contributed to the immense devastation from Hurricane Katrina. Other agricultural areas were also affected

Many of the concerns surrounding fish farming arise from the crowding together of thousands of fish in their artificial environment. Waste products, including feces, uneaten food, and dead fish, are flushed (often untreated) into the surrounding waters where they add to the contamination of the water supply.

109.           *recreational effects on freshwater


creates a reservoir ,or a place where water is stored and prevents the water from continuing downstream. There are several benefits to damming waterways, such as flood prevention and providing a source of water for human consumption and agricultural irrigation.



creating structures that prevent the natural flow of water can cause it to build up and release all at once in a dangerous flood

110.                 non-point source pollution

NPS pollution is caused by rainfall or snowmelt moving over and through the ground. As the runoff moves, it picks up and carries away natural and human-made pollutants, finally depositing them into lakes, rivers, wetlands, coastal waters and ground waters.


As the runoff moves, it picks up and carries away natural and human-made pollutants, finally depositing them into lakes, rivers, wetlands, coastal waters and ground waters.




111.                   point source pollution

Point source pollution, on the most basic level, is water pollution that comes from a single, discrete place, typically a pipe. The Clean Water Act specifically defines a “point source” in section 502(14) of the Act.


Water pollution coming from a single point, such as a sewage-outflow pipe.


1. water


112.              primary waste water treatment

Primary treatment involves basic processes to remove suspended solid waste and reduce its biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) – the amount of oxygen microorganisms must consume to breakdown the organic material present in the wastewater.


Wastewater treatment is done in a series of steps that can have increasing effectiveness and complexity depending on the resources available. 


1. water


113.              secondary waste water treatment

Secondary treatment is a treatment process for wastewater (or sewage) to achieve a certain degree of effluent quality by using a sewage treatment plant with physical phase separation to remove settleable solids and a biological process to remove dissolved and suspended organic compounds.


Secondary treatment is the portion of a sewage treatment sequence removing dissolved and colloidal compounds measured as biochemical oxygen demand (BOD)



114.                     tertiary waste water tretment

Tertiary treatment is the final cleaning process that improveswastewater quality before it is reused, recycled or discharged to the environment. The treatment removes remaining inorganic compounds, and substances, such as the nitrogen and phosphorus.


Tertiary treatment is the final cleaning process that improves wastewater quality before it is reused, recycled or discharged to the environment.



2. waterr


115.                                Slude

thick, soft, wet mud or a similar viscous mixture of liquid and solid components, especially the product of an industrial or refining process.


Sludge is a semi-solid slurry and can be produced as sewage sludge from wastewater treatment processes or as a settled suspension obtained from conventional drinking water treatment and numerous other industrial processes.


1. waste water

2. solid slury