Unit 6 Meterology

Layers of the Atmosphere

 

The atmosphere is divided into five layers. It is thickest near the surface and thins out with height until it eventually merges with space.

1) The troposphere is the first layer above the surface and contains half of the Earth’s atmosphere. Weather occurs in this layer.
2) Many jet aircrafts fly in the stratosphere because it is very stable. Also, the ozone layer absorbs harmful rays from the Sun.
3) Meteors or rock fragments burn up in the mesosphere.
4) The thermosphere is a layer with auroras. It is also where the space shuttle orbits.
5) The atmosphere merges into space in the extremely thin exosphere. This is the upper limit of our atmosphere.

Changing States of Water

;

There are 3 states of water which are liquid, solid and gas. All three states exist on earth. Water has been called the life force. There are names for each of the phase changes of water. They are given below:

Water going from a solid to a liquid: Melting
Water going from a liquid to a gas: Evaporation
Water going from a solid to a gas: Sublimation
Water going from a liquid to a solid: Freezing
Water going from a gas to a liquid: Condensation
Water going from a gas to a solid: Deposition

Latent Heat

;

 energy released or absorbed, by a body or a thermodynamic system, during a constant-temperature process that is specified in some way. 
Saturation Point

;

the stage at which no more of a substance can be absorbed into a vapor or dissolved into a solution.
Relative humidity

;

the amount of water vapor present in air expressed as a percentage of the amount needed for saturation at the same temperature.
Hygrometer

;

an instrument used for measuring the moisture content in the atmosphere. 
Hygrometer

;

an instrument used for measuring the moisture content in the atmosphere.  
Hygrometer

;

an instrument used for measuring the moisture content in the atmosphere.  
Dew point

;

Dew point is a measure of atmospheric moisture.
Adiabatic rates

;

This rate is called the adiabatic lapse rate (the rate of temperature change occurring within a rising or descending air parcel). I
Clouds

;

a visible mass of condensed water vapor floating in the atmosphere, typically high above the ground.
Air mass

;

n meteorology, an air mass is a volume of airdefined by its temperature and water vapor content. 
Air pressure

;

Atmospheric pressure is the pressure exerted by the weight of air in the atmosphere of Earth (or that of another planet). 
Barometer

;

an instrument measuring atmospheric pressure, used especially in forecasting the weather and determining altitude.
isobar map

;

line drawn on a weathermap through points of equal atmospheric pressure. Isobars are used todefine cyclones (low-pressure regions) and anticyclones (high-pressure regions).
factors affecting winds

;

there are 6 factors that affect wind they are

– latitude

-altitude

– distance from the sea

– pressure and wind system

– relief

– ocean currents

Condensation nuclei

;

are small particles typically 0.2 µm, or 1/100th the size of a cloud droplet on which water vapour condenses. 
Cyclones

;

a system of winds rotating inward to an area of low atmospheric pressure, with a counterclockwise (northern hemisphere) or clockwise (southern hemisphere) circulation; a depression.
Anticyclones

;

a weather system with high atmospheric pressure at its center, around which air slowly circulates in a clockwise (northern hemisphere) or counterclockwise (southern hemisphere) direction. Anticyclones are associated with calm, fine weather.
Cold front

;

the boundary of an advancing mass of cold air, in particular the trailing edge of the warm sector of a low-pressure system.
Warm Front

;

the boundary of an advancing mass of warm air, in particular the leading edge of the warm sector of a low-pressure system
Stationary Front

;

When Warm Air And Cold Air Collides neither of which is strong enough to replace the other. 
Occluded Front

;

When a cold front takes over a warm front
More Factors Affecting Wind

;

  Pressure Gradient Forces, Coriolis Effect ; Friction
El Nino

;

an irregularly occurring and complex series of climatic changes affecting the equatorial Pacific region and beyond every few years, characterized by the appearance of unusually warm, nutrient-poor water off northern Peru and Ecuador, typically in late December.
La Nina

;

a cooling of the water in the equatorial Pacific that occurs at irregular intervals and is associated with widespread changes in weather patterns complementary to those of El Nino, but less extensive and damaging in their effects.
Doppler effect

;

The Doppler effect (or Doppler shift) is the change in frequency of a wave (or other periodic event) for an observer moving relative to its source. It is named after the Austrian physicist Christian Doppler, who proposed it in 1842 in Prague.
Ozone Layer

;

a layer in the earth’s stratosphere at an altitude of about 6.2 miles (10 km) containing a high concentration of ozone, which absorbs most of the ultraviolet radiation reaching the earth from the sun.
Greenhouse effect

 

the trapping of the sun’s warmth in a planet’s lower atmosphere due to the greater transparency of the atmosphere to visible radiation from the sun than to infrared radiation emitted from the planet’s surface.
Global Warming

;

a gradual increase in the overall temperature of the earth’s atmosphere generally attributed to the greenhouse effect caused by increased levels of carbon dioxide, chlorofluorocarbons, and other pollutants.