In spring, homesteaders could face sudden, terrifying tornados. In the winter, blizzards followed. Over the long term, homesteaders discovered that the western grasslands did not receive enough rain to grow wheat and other grains. Despite the belief that “rain followed the plow,” the cycle of rainfall shifted from wet to dry. While farmers and homesteaders faced vast problems, the large scale on which hydraulic mining was done wreaked large-scale havoc on the environment. What remained in most cases was a ravaged landscape with mountains of debris, poisoned water sources, and surrounding lands stripped of timber. Reconstruction and large harmful effects to the environment allowed Yellowstone to be built, it also allowed for a preservation area to help preserve the animal habitats and allow for species to thrive. 4) Before the Civil War, Congress reserved the Great Plains for nomadic peoples. But in the era of railroads, steel plows, and Union victory, Americans suddenly had the power and desire to incorporate the whole plains, causing reservation wars to form due to disputes over land. These wars were nasty and messy. ) Due to their peace policy, breaking up of native lands and forming reserves, and Europeanize them essentially believing they were making them better as people. The reserves played a huge part in that, they believed it was a favor being done. 6) Despite their humane intentions, peace advocates’ condescension was obvious. They ignored dissenters like Dry. Thomas Bland of the National Indian Defense Association, who suggested that instead of an “Indian problem” there might be a “white problem”; the refusal to permit Indians to live according to their own traditional ways.
Chapter 1 7: 1) The United States became an industrial power by tapping North America’s sat natural resources, including minerals, lumber, and coal, particularly in the newly developed West. Steam engines replaced human and animal labor, and kerosene replaced whale oil and wood. Many companies incorporated vertical integration and vicious sales tactics. 2) Middle workers took on entirely new tasks, directing the flow of goods, labor, and information throughout the enterprise. Middle workers were key innovators, counterparts to the engineers in research laboratories who, in the same decades, worked to reduce costs and improve efficiency. ) Initially, through the deskilling of abort under a new system of mechanized manufacturing that industrialist Henry F-rod would soon call mass production. Women also began to hold menial wage jobs in factories and worked equally to men. Many skilled men also originally worked underneath a self-imposed boss and worked their own hours, paid for what they produced vs.. An hourly wage. Many companies attempted to get rid of that ideal, and place these independent workers on a larger scale scenario. 4) Many native-born Americans viewed immigrants with hostility; they also feared that immigrants would compete for jobs and erode ages. ) Greenbacks advocated laws to regulate corporations and enforce an eight-hour limit on the workday. They called for the federal government to print more greenback dollars and increase the amount of money in circulation; this, they argued, would stimulate the economy, create jobs, and help borrowers by allowing them to pay off debts in dollars that, over time, slowly decreased in value. Both Railroad workers and Greenbacks subscribed to the ideal of producers, and united in an attempt to try and produce a better life for themselves as a result. ) urban Knights organized regimen’s parties to advocate a host of reforms, ranging from an eight- hour workday to cheaper streetcar fares and better garbage collection. One of the Knights’ key innovations was hiring a full-time women’s organizer, Eleanor Barry. The pattern of the Knights’ growth showed the grassroots nature of labor activism in the asses. Increases in membership were often prompted by ‘Wildcat strikes”, those that workers started spontaneously, without consulting union leaders.
The Homemaker violence (series of riots) caused profound damage to the American labor movement, and lead to the Knights’ decline. Seizing on anti-union hysteria set off by the incident, employers went on the offensive against the Knights. They broke strikes violently and forced workers to sign contracts in which they pledged not to join labor organizations. The Knights of Labor never recovered. 7) In the asses, printers, molders, ironworker, bricklayers, and about thirty other groups of skilled workers organized nationwide trade unions.
The labor movement created the foundation for subsequent farmer-labor movements and more sustained, vigorous efforts to regulate big business. Chapter 18: 1) The average American family, especially among the middle class, decreased n size in the post Civil War decades. A long decline in the birthrate, which began in the late eighteenth century, continued in this era. In 1800, white women who survived to menopause had borne an average of 7. 0 children; by 1900, the average was 3. 6. Also, the needs of the changing economy also influenced the curriculum at more traditional institutions.
State universities emphasized agricultural and technical training. They fed the growing professional workforce with graduates trained in fields such as engineering, and many other high school graduates were also produced alternatively. 2) One of the first promoters of physical fitness was the Young Men’s Christian Association (YMCA). Adapted from Britain and introduced to Boston in 1 851, the YMCA combined vigorous activities for young men with an evangelize appeal. In regards to Baseball, black players were increasingly barred.
Shut out of white leagues, black players and fans turned instead to segregated professional teams. These emerged as early as Reconstruction, showcasing both athletic talent and race pride. 3) The Comatose law made it illegal to ship anything that may have been considered obscene at the time. This includes erotica, contraceptives, abortiveness, sex toys and any information regarding the above items. This shows both a large religious influence and a weak presence of feminism in regards to what life was like in the industrial area. ) Coeducation was prevalent in the Midwest and West, where state universities opened their doors to female students after the Civil War. Women were also admitted to most of the southern African American colleges founded during Reconstruction. By 1910, 58 percent of America’s 1,083 colleges and universities were coeducational. 5) These ideas brought realist and naturalist Ritter into the arts, which laid the groundwork for literary modernism. Modernists rejected traditional canons of literary taste. They tended to be religious skeptics or atheists.
Questioning the whole idea of progress and order, they focused their attention on the subconscious and “primitive” mind. In the visual arts, technological changes helped introduce a new aesthetic. By 1900, some photographers argued that the rise of photography made painting obsolete. But painters invented their own form of realism. 6) American religious practice remained vibrant. Protestants developed creative ewe responses to the challenges of industrialization, while millions of newcomers built their own institutions for worship and religious education.
Protestants also found their religious beliefs challenged by modern ideas and ways of life. Some Protestant thinkers found ways to reconcile Christianity with Darning’s theory of natural selection and other scientific principles. But it was hard to ignore the fact that millions of American weekenders were now Catholics or Jews or, in the case Of Chinese, even Buddhists and Confucian. Chapter 19 1) New technologies helped residents and visitors negotiate the large assistances of the industrial city. Steam-driven cable cars appeared in the asses.
Soon, in the asses, architects invented the skyscraper, a building that was supported by its steel skeleton while its walls bore little weight, serving instead as curtains to enclose the structure. However, for ordinary citizens, one of the most dramatic urban amenities was electric light. Electric streetlights soon replaced gaslights on city streets across the country. Electric lighting also entered the American home, thanks to Thomas Edition’s invention off serviceable incandescent bulb in 1879. 2) New blacks from the South faced discrimination and violence.
The race riot, an attack by white mobs triggered by street altercations or rumors of crime. One of the most virulent episodes occurred in Atlanta, Georgia, in 1906. This set Of events, which came to be known as the Atlanta race riot, was fueled by a nasty political campaign that generated sensational false charges of “negro crime. 3) One enticing attraction for city dwellers was vaudeville, which arose in the asses and 1 sass, as a quick and easy access to entertainment in a form of theatrical arts. First popular among the working class, vaudeville quickly broadened its appeal to include middle-class audiences.
Amusement parks also appeared during this time, including the famous Coney Island amusement park. Popular music also became a booming business in the industrial city. By the asses, Tin Pan Alley, the nickname for New York City song-publishing district, produced such national hit tunes as “A Bicycle Built for Two” and “My Wild Irish Rose. ” The most famous sold more than a million copies of sheet music, as well as audio recordings on newly invented phonograph cylinders. 4) Machines were hardly perfect, but immigrants could rely on them for jobs, emergency aid, and the only public services they old hope to obtain.
Astute commentators saw that bosses dominated city government because they provided what was needed, with no moralistic lectures. As one put it, machines offered “neighborly kindness instead of annual political sermons. ” Many also believed that the middle-class did not care too much about the well-being of the poor immigrant workers in the slums. 5) Quite successful, reform mayors ousted machines and began to provide public baths, gyms, swimming pools, and playgrounds and provided free public concerts and other public utility projects as replacement to what the machines could provide.
They also battled streetcar companies to bring down fares. 6) The public health movement became one of the era’s most visible and influential reforms. In cities, the impact of pollution was more obvious than it was in rural areas. Children played on piles of garbage, breathed toxic air, and consumed poisoned food, milk, and water. Outraged, urban reformers embroiled to demand safe water and better garbage collection. Hygiene reformers taught hand-washing and other techniques to fight the spread Of tuberculosis.
Reformers worked in other ways to make cities healthier and more beautiful to live in. Many municipalities adopted make-abatement laws, though they had limited success with enforcement until the post World War I adoption of natural gas, which burned cleaner than coal. 7) Some organizations, like the Hampton Institute, sprang up to aid former slaves in Southern cities during Reconstruction; others, like Grace Baptist Temple and Samaritan Hospital in Philadelphia, served northern working-class and immigrant populations.
Eventually, these programs would develop into what’s called the social settlements; the most famous of these was Hull House on Chicago West Side, founded in 1 889 by Jane Addams and her close companion Ellen Gates Starr. ) Over the decades that followed after the triangle fire, people had run to the great cities from rural areas and from countries around the world. They helped build America into a global industrial power. In the process, they created an electorate that was far more ethnically, racially, and religiously diverse than ever before.
This diversity was most obvious in the cities. Urban reformers worked to improve the conditions of work, housing, and daily living for the diverse residents of American cities, and defended the rights of the American minorities. Chapter 20 1) Populists called for public ownership of railroad and telegraph systems, retention of land and natural resources from monopoly and foreign ownership, a federal income tax on the highest incomes, and a looser monetary policy to help borrowers. 2) Mainly civil rights issues for black Americans.
Nationwide, as in the South, the 1894-1896 realignment prompted a wave of political changes, but they were the kind of “reforms” that excluded voters rather than increasing democratic participation. In the South, meanwhile, Democrats moved from being the leading political party to becoming virtually the only political party. The resulting formal disenfranchisement and segregation of African Americans left a bitter legacy hat lasted for generations. 3) In its landmark decision in Please v. Ferguson (1896), the Supreme Court put the nation’s stamp of approval on racial discrimination.
The Court ruled that such segregation did not violate the Fourteenth Amendment as long as blacks had access to accommodations equal to those of whites. This “separate but equal” doctrine, like the Court’s ruling on bakers’ work hours (Lecher v. New York 1905, the U. S. Supreme Court told New York State that it could not limit bakers’ workdays to ten hours because that violated bakers’ rights to make contracts) protected theoretical sights while ignoring reality. 4) Roosevelt undertook some marked departures from his predecessors.
During a bitter 1902 coal strike, he threatened to nationalize the big coal companies if their owners refused to negotiate with the miners’ union. Roosevelt also sought better enforcement of the Interstate Commerce Act and the Sherman Antitrust Act. In 1 903, he pushed through the Alkies Act, which prohibited discriminatory railway rates that favored powerful customers. All of these actions defied the traditional rules of Laissez-Fairer politics, and ultimately lead to the downfall of Roosevelt. 5) The
Democrats, though a minority party, won an electoral landslide because the Republicans divided their vote between Roosevelt and Taft. But the division of former Republicans between Taft and Roosevelt made the results fairly easy to predict. Most were all progressive in their own way, which gave them each a diverse platform (Eugene Dive & the socialist party of America). 6) The Wilson administration achieved a series of landmark economic reforms. The most enduring was the federal income tax. This long sought tax required a federal constitutional amendment, which was ratified by the states in February 1913.