Vocab for 1st Test

Anthropogenic climate change
Climate change brought on by human activity
Niche
The specialized position, in society or ecology, that a person/organism holds
Generalists vs Specialists
Generalist species can survive in a wide variety of environmental conditions, while specialist species require a narrow range of environmental conditions in order to thrive
Biogeographical patterns
The distribution patterns of species/organisms/ecosystems in space and through time
Biogeographical patterns
The distribution patterns of species/organisms/ecosystems in space and through time
Habitat
The ecological/environmental area a species inhabits
Range
The geographical area a species has inhabited in recent times (5000~ years) excluding changes caused by human activity
Biodiversity
The degree of variation of life forms within a ecosystem, biome, or entire planet
Species distribution
The manner by which a species is dispersed through space
Climatic variables
Various factors that govern the climate including rain, atmospheric pressure, wind, humidity and temperature
Introduced species
A species that is living outside of its natural range, introduced by human activity
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)
Scientific intergovernmental body responsible for reviewing information produced worldwide relevant to the understanding of climate change
Species turnover
A measure of biodiversity; the difference in diversity of species between two or more ecosystems in an area, expressed as the total number of species unique to each ecosystem
Range – expansion vs contraction
Growth/loss of specie’s range
Biotic interactions
The interactions between species in a community
Migration
Long-distance movement of individuals, usually on a seasonal basis
Fecundity
The ability to reproduce (fertility)
Dispersal
Species movement away from an existing population or away from the parent organism
Extinction
The end of an organism (taxon [group of organisms]), usually a species
Sea surface temperature (SST)
The water temperature close to the ocean’s surface
Air temperature (AT)
How hot or cold the air is
Deforestation
The destruction of forests to be converted into non-forest use such as agriculture
Cloud cover, mist
The % of sky obscured by clouds when observed from a particular location
Microevolution
Changes in allele frequencies that occur over time in a population due to mutation, natural/artificial selection, gene flow, and genetic drift
Genetic diversity
The total number of genetic characteristics in the genetic makeup of a species; important as a method of adaptation to changing environments
Adaptation
The evolutionary process by which a population becomes better suited to its habitat
Variation
The state or fact of being varying; the act or process of varying
Bud burst
The stage when the leaves emerge from the bud break (stage when a leaf bud has opened just enough to show a green tip) and start to unfold/separate.
Peak Food
Refers to a time when food yields will be unable to supply the deman for the globe and prices theoretically explode to unimaginable heights
Runoff
Water flow that occurs when soil is infiltrated to full capacity and excess water flows over the land
Snowpack
Layers of compacted snow that form in high-altitude regions where it remains cold for extended periods of time
Hydrological cycle
The continuous movement/recycling of water on/above/below the surface of earth
Watershed
Drainage basin – area of land where all of the surface water from rain/melting snow/ice converges to a single point
Fossil water
Ancient water stored in underground reservoirs
Aerosols
Suspension of a fine solid particle or liquid droplet in a gas- includes air pollutions such as smog/smoke
Black carbon aerosol
Aerosol that can sometimes find its way onto glaciers and decrease their albedo
Albedo
The reflectivity of a surface
Glaciers
A large, persistent body of ice
Glacial retreat
The melting of glaciers across the globe- 95% are in retreat since 1850
Pathogens
A microbe or microorganism such as a virus, bacterium, prion, or fungus that causes disease to it’s host
Agricultural systems
The system set in place to cultivate plants, animals, fungi, and other life forms for human consumption/use
Contaminants
Substances that cause instability, disorder, harm, or discomfort to the ecosystem
Vector
An organism that carries disease from one host to another (i.e. mosquitos)
Infectious diseases
Clinically evident diseases resulting from infection that can be spread to other hosts
Mitigate
To make less severe or painful
Temperature
A measurement of hotness/coldness
Biomagnification
The increase in concentration of a substance that occurs in a food chain as it moves up the chain
Volatile organic compounds (VOCs)
Organic compounds that have high vapor pressure at room temperature, causing large numbers of the molecule to evaporate from the solid/liquid form and enter the air
Volatile inorganic compounds (VICs)
Inorganic compounds that have high vapor pressure at room temperature, causing large numbers of the molecule to evaporate from the solid/liquid form and enter the air
Epidemiological studies
The primary method of public health research which helps inform policy decisions and evidence-based medicine
Mycotoxins
Toxic secondary metabolite produced by fungi that readily colonize crops
Ozone
O3
In lower atomosphere, it is a pollutant. In upper atmosphere, it is an essential part of the atmosphere to protect us from radiation
Zoonotic diseases
Any disease that can be transferred from a non-human animal to a human or vice-versa
Sludge (sewage)
Residual, semi-solid material leftover from industrial wastewater, or sewage treatment processes
Hydrophobicity
Physical property of a molecule that is repelled from a mass of water
Bioavailability
The ability for a molecule to cross an organism’s cell membrane from the environment, if the organism is exposed to the chemical
Spray drift
Unintentional diffusion of sprayed pesticides
Volatilization
Process whereby a substance sample is vaporized
Biodegradable
The ability of a material to decompose by natural processes
Climate-linked epidemic hypothesis
Prediction that amphibians are more likely to die in warmer years
Clutch
All of the eggs produced by birds/reptiles, often at the same time, usually kept in a nest
OPEC (the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries)
Algeria, Venezuela, Saudi Arabia, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Angola, Indonesia, Ecuador, Libya, Nigeria, Qatar, and the United Arab Emirates