Vocabulary Chapter 1-5

Earth Science
name for the group of sciences that deal with Earth and it’s neighbors in space
Geology
The study of Earth
Meteorology
Study of the atmosphere and the processes that produce weather and climate
Astronomy
The study of the universe
Hydrosphere
all the water on Earth
Atmosphere
Life sustaining, thin gaseous layer envelope
Geosphered
between the atmosphere and the ocean
Biosphere
all life on Earth
Core
heavy, dense inner sphere of Earth
Mantle
less dense than core, inner crust
Crust
outer layer of the lithosphere
Nebular Hypothesis
Says the systems formed out of a cloud called the solar nebular
Latitude
Distance north and South of the Equator
Longitude
Distance east and west of the equator
Topographic Map
Shows elevation
Contour lines
Shows the changes in elevation
Contour interval
Shows the differences in elevation
System
a size or group of interacting parts that help to form a complex whole
Hypothesis
Educated guess
Theory
A well tested Hypothesis
Plate tectionics
Plates underneath crust that move using convection currents
Equator
The line that measures 0 degrees horizontally across the Earth
Prime Meridian
Line that measures 0 degrees vertically across the Earth
Renewable Resource
a resource that can be replenished faster than a nonrenewable resource
Nonrenewable Resource
A resource that is used faster than it can be replenished
Element
Can be broken down into simpler substances by chemical or physical means
Atomic number
The number of protons and electrons in an atom
Energy Level
Where electrons are located
Isotop
Atoms with the same number of protons but a different number of electrons
Mass number
total mass of an atom
Compound
when two or more atoms are chemically combined
Chemical Bond
Happens when an atom’s outer most energy level does not meet the maximum number of electrons needed
Ion
an atom with an electric charge
Ionic bond
a bond between ions
Covalent Bond
When atoms share electrons
Metallic Bond
When electons are shared by metal ions
Atom
the smallest particle of matter that contains the characteristics of an element
Carbonate
Minerals that contain carbon, oxygen, and one or more metallic elements
Oxides
minerals that contain oxygen and one or more other elements, which are usually metals
Minerals
naturally occurring inorganic solids
Silicate
most common groups of minerals on earth
Silicon- Oxygen Tetrahedron
silicon and oxygen combined
Streak
The color of a mineral in it’s powder form
Luster
describes how light is reflected from mineral’s surface
Crystal form
A mineral in it’s crystal form
Hardness
a mineral’s resistance to scratching
Moh’s Scale
measures a minerals hardness from weakest to hardest
Cleavage
The tendency of a mineral to cleave, or break along flat even surfaces.
Fracture
minerals that do not show cleavage
Density
it has a formula im too lazy to write down
Native Elements
minerals that contain one element as type of atom
Rock
naturally occuring mineral or mineral like substance in our planet
Rock Cycle
the continuous processes that cause rocks to change
Magma
molten material that form deep beneath the Earth’s surface
Igneous rock
Form from magma cooling down
lava
magma that reaches the Earth’s surface
weathering
a process in which rocks are physically or chemically broken down
Sediment
the weathered pieces of Earth’s materials
Metamorphic Rock
what sediment creates after being in extreme pressure and temperature.
Sedimentary rock
sediment that is compacted and cemented
Intrusive Igneous rocks
rocks that form when magma hardes underneath the Earth’s surface
Extrusive Igneous rocks
rocks that form when lava hardens
Texture
describes the appearance of an igneous rock based on its size, shape, and arrangement
Composition
what something is made of
Porphyrictic texture
rocks with different sized minerals because of different cooling rates
Granite Composition
igneous rock where light colored silicate minerals, quartz, and feldspar are the main materials
Basaltic compositon
Rocks that contain many dark silicate minerals and Plagioclase feldspar
Basaltic compositon
Rocks that contain many dark silicate minerals and Plagioclase feldspar
Andesitic composition
rocks with a composition between granite and basaltic rocks
Ultramafic
A rock that is composed of dark silicate minerals
Erosion
involves weathering and removal of rock
Compaction
the process that squeeze sediments together
Cementation
when tiny sediments are wedged in between tiny spaces among the sediments
Clastic Sedimentary rock
rocks made of weathered bits of rocks and minerals
Metamorphism
to change form
Foliated
when rocks undergo contact metamorphics they become more compact and minerals will recrystalize
Chemical Sedimentary Rock
when dissolved minerals precipitate from water solutions
non-foliated
a metamorphic rock that does not have a banded appearance
hydrothermal solution
hot water solution carrying dissolved minerals
Ore
something that contains a mineral that you can smelt something out
Geothermal Energy
using the earth’s interior to heat water and use it to run turbines
Chernobyl
a nuclear powerplant that melted down and had a big exposion
Talus
sections of rock that are wedged loose may tumble into large piles