Vocabulary – Chapters 1/2

Environmentally Sustainable Society
Society that satisfies the basic needs of its people without depleting or degrading its natural resources
Natural Capital/Natural Resources
Earth’s natural materials and processes that sustain other species and us
Exponential Growth
Growth in which some quantity increases by a fixed percentage of the whole in a given time period
Doubling Time
Time it takes for the quantity of something growing exponentially to double
Rule of 70
Doubling time (in years) =
70/percentage growth rate
Economic Growth
Increase in capacity to provide people with goods and services produced by an economy
Economic Development
Improvement of living standards by economic growth
GNI (Gross National Income)
Total market value in current dollars of all goods and services produced WITHIN AND OUTSIDE a country during a year
GDP (Gross Domestic Product)
Total market value in current dollars of all goods and services produced WITHIN a country
GWP (Gross World Product)
Market value in current dollars of all goods and services produced in the WORLD each year
Per Capita GNI
Annual gross national income of a country divided by its total population
Developed Countries
Country that is highly industrialized and has a high per capita GNP
Developing Countries
Country has low-moderate industrialization and low to moderate per capita GNP
Ecological Footprint
Measure of the ecological impact of the consumption of wood/food/products/resources, use of buildings/roads/garbage dumps, and destruction of forests
Globalization
Broad process of global social/economic/environmental change that leads to an increasingly similar and integrated world
Ecological Resources
Earth’s natural materials and processes that sustain other species and us
Economic Resources
Natural resources, capital goods, and labor used in an economy to produce material goods and services
Perpetual Resources
Essentially inexhaustible resource on a human time scale (Example: Solar Energy)
Environmental Degradation
Depletion or destruction of a potentially renewable resource that is used faster than it is naturally replenished