Alabama-Coosa-Tallapoosa and Apalachicolo-Chattahoochee-Flint river basins. Basically straddles the N-S border b/w Georgia and Alabama. Have a water compact.
Gibbons vs. Ogden
Livingston and Fulton had monopoly on steamboats in NY-NJ waterways. Ogden got license from them, started own steamboat company. Gibbons used to work with Ogden, then left to start own steamboat company in direct competition with Ogden’s. Ogden went to court, got injunction permitting Gibbons’ use, then Gibbons sued.
Case went to Supreme Ct and ruled in Gibbons favor. Basically said Congress and fed. govt control commerce/navigation b/w states.
1928 Flood Control Act
enacted after huge 1927 Mississippi Rvr flood. Gave regulation of flood power to Army Corps of Engineers.
grants to all riparian owners the right to make reasonable use of the water so long as the water use does not interfere with the reasonable use of water by other riparian users. Disputes over what constitutes reasonable use are generally resolved by the courts. The fundamental principles of this doctrine are:-ownership of land along a body of water (riparian ownership) is essential to the existence of a right to that water-each riparian owner has an equal right to make use of the water in its natural state (no storage), no matter when use of the water was initiated; thus, shortages are shared.used in most Eastern states
doctrine of prior appropriation
First in time of use is first in right (i.e.
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, the earliest appropriator on a stream has the first right to use the water), andApplication of the water to a beneficial use is the basis and measure of the rightused in most Western states
instream flow requirement
Instream flow is the amount of water flowing through a natural stream course that is needed to sustain the instream values at an acceptable level. Instream values and uses include: protection of fish and wildlife habitat, migration, and propagation; outdoor recreation activities; navigation; hydropower generation; waste assimilation (water quality); and ecosystem maintenance which includes recruitment of fresh water to the estuaries, riparian vegetation, floodplain wetlands, and maintenance of channel geomorphology. Water requirements sufficient to maintain all of these uses at an acceptable level are the “instream flow requirements.
Beneficial use is a cardinal principle of the Appropriation Doctrine. It has two components: the nature or purpose of the use and the efficient or non-wasteful use of water. State constitutions, statutes, or case law may define uses of water that are beneficial, those uses may be different in each State, and the definition of what uses are beneficial may change over time. The right to use water established under State law may be lost if the beneficial use is discontinued for prescribed period of time
Federal Power Act of 1920
encouraged the development of hydroelectric projects, such as dams and reservoirs. he Act established the Federal Power Commission (FPC), which was run by the Secretaries of War, the Department of Agriculture, and the Department of the Interior. These agencies were primarily responsible for issuing licenses to non-federal hydropower projects that affected navigable waters, esp. interstate commerce.
Amended in 1935, 1977, 1986 most notably
Water Resources Planning Act (1965)
created federal-state river basin commissions to promote better water resources planning and to support economic development. It also created the Water Resources Council, a federal integrated water resource planning entity that would coordinate the seven river basin commissions. produced the Principles and Guidelines, which were decision-making guidelines for evaluating federally funded water projects and allocating water not just by considering its economic highest use, but also by incorporating social values for how water and land were used. Commission zeroed by Reagan and Principles and Standards weakened, replaced by Principles and Guidelines
makes up about 7 percent of US electricity.
Largest dam is Grand Coulee on the Colombia Rvr, which generates 6465 megawatts.Requires huge amount of water
suppy enhancement options: reuse of reclaimed water, metering, leak detection/repairsdemand reduction options: no conservation measures, new housing requirements, retrofitting old houses plus new housing requirements.Biggest use of domestic water=toilets. Most water use around here is by single family residential.
for modeling how fast water moves in aquifer:energy gradient= (H2-H1)/change in x
types of voids in rock
primary voids-form at same time as rocks. Ex. pores in sand, lava tubes.secondary voids- formed after rock formed.
Ex. fractures in granite, dissolving of limestone by groundwater.
immediately below ground surface, with 3 zones. Soil zone, then intermediate zone, capillary fringe (b/w saturated and unsaturated)- there, the pressure in the water is less than atmospheric pressure (because of water’s atomic attraction to rock).
where hydraulic pressure equals atmospheric pressure. Once you hit the water table, the further you go down the higher the pressure.
ratio of opening voids out of total value.
water particles tend to stick to discrete stream lines and tend to go to adjacent stream lines.