Water Resources

Water Pollution
the change in water quality that renders it unfit for a given use.
point source pollution
defined as contamination discharged through a pipe or other discrete, identifiable locations.
non-point source pollution
generated from broad, diffuse sources that can be very difficult to identify and quantify.
Water Pollutants (8)
1. oxygen demanding chemicals
2. plant nutrients
3. sediments
4. salts
5. disease causing pathogens
6. synthetic organic chemicals
7. trace inorganic chemicals
8. emerging contaminants
Eutrophication
the process of a water body moving from low levels to high levels of essential nutrients, with result in a high demand of dissolved oxygen and can create anaerobic conditions.
Nutrients go into water (N,P) -> dead alge (takes up oxygen) -> dead fish
Disease Causing Pathogens
virus, bacteria, protozoa, cryptosporduim
BOD
Biochemcial oxygen demand. an index of water quality- it is the amount of oxygen required to biochemically oxidize the organic matter present in water.
Factors that affect soil erosion
climate, soil, topography, land use
CWA (Clean Water Act)
1972. the principle law governing pollution of the nation’s surface waters.
Designated Water use Categories
drinking water, aquatic life support, fish consumption, body contact recreation, non-body contact recreation, agricultural use
Water Quality Criteria: Biological integrity
objective measurements of aqutic biological communities.
Water Quality Criteria: Chemical Data
measurements of key chemical constituents in water, sediments, and fish tissue. (nitrogen and phosphorus, metals, oils, and pesticides)
Water Quality Criteria: Physical Data
characteristics of water such as temperature, flow, dissolved oxygen, suspended solids, turbidity, conductivity, and pH.
CWA Two major parts
1. provisions that authorize federal financial assistance for municipal sewage treatment plant construction.
2. the other is the regulatory requirements that apply to industrial and municipal discharges.
BPT & BAT
Best practicable control technology (clean up waste discharges)
Best Available Technology (focus on toxic substances)
Determinant Factors to Environmental Quality
Source-> transport-> transformation-> impact
Source
emissions(air), application-agrichemicals(land, water), discharge- municipal or industrial(water), disposal-landfill(land), leak-unintended discharge(land, air, water),inherent natural source(land).
Transport
can be transported by mass flow(convection) and diffusion
Siltation
the leading pollution of nation’s rivers and streams.
Leading Sources of pollution in rivers and streams
siltation, nutrients, bacteria, organic matter, pesticide, habitat, suspended solids, metals.
leading pollutants in lakes, reservoirs, and ponds
nutrients, metals, siltation, organic matter, noxious aquatic plants, suspended solids, toxic chemicals.
TMDL (total maximum daily loads)
defines how much of a pollutant a waterbody (ambient, not the discharge water) can tolerate daily and still. it is a planning process that will lead to the goal of meeting the water quality standards. comply with applicable water quality standards.