Wateris a precious natural national resource with almost fixed quantum ofavailability. Most water (96.5%) is in the oceans, which cover 71% of theEarth’s surface. 3% is freshwater, two-thirdsof which is tied up as ice in glaciers and at the poles.
This leavesapproximately 1% as freshwater in rivers, lakes, atmosphere and groundwater. Onebillion people lack sufficient water for domestic consumption in the worldtoday, and it is estimated that, in 30 years, 5.5 billion people will be livingin areas with moderate to serious water shortages. It clearly shows thescarcity of the fresh water, fresh water is a renewable resource but there aresome unclear how much natural renewal balance for the usage.
Water usageincludes environmental, industrial, household and agricultural activities.Human’s all living things depend on water. Continuous ground water decreasing occursspecially in Asia and America, it is a popular issue in the current situationtherefore human should consider about the sustainable water resource managementas a crucial thing.Srilankan is a developing country; hereurban area’s population and industries are more than rural areas, thereforewater usage also higher in urban areas. Currently urbanized planning requireshigh need of water than earlier. Water scarcity creates water as an economicalgood so that water supply system charge price for water. Now a days water is notenough to fulfill the consumers requirement because of higher demand and lessavailability of existing water.
SriLanka’s Water Supply and Drainage Board has decided to limit its pump watersupply in the island due to the prevailing drought condition and increased consumption.Colombo city and suburban areas of Colombo District water requirement fulfillby Ambatale Water Treatment Plant, it is the main plant with high capacity .TheWater Board currently supplies bowser water even to non-consumers in 16districts suffering from drought as requested by the Disaster ManagementAuthority.Waterusage management means the challenges and solutions of water resource thatmeans ability to maximum utilize without any degrading action. Effective waterusage management consists of the technological choices and economic balance inprotecting water quantity and water quality.
Mostof the people don’t have adequate knowledge to efficient use of water;therefore we need to raise public awareness for this. In order to set up andachieve relevant and realistic targets we will need to invest time andresources in careful planning, organization, training and follow-up. The firststep to take when creating a water management plan is to start measuring waterconsumption and set some tangible targets.
It’s vital to know your start pointand find out how much water you are currently using. Proper measurements arehelped to understand the real problem and the better understanding helps tosolve the problem improve the system. Aswell as understanding measurement and target setting knows water costs.Therefore, water usage management is important because it provides decisionmaking tools to the concerned people in the utility, institutions or householdsby identifying inefficient uses, problem areas wherein water conservation andremedial measures can be undertaken.
Waterusage management is “systematic approach of identifying, measuring, monitoringand reducing water consumption by various activities in industry or institutionor building”. It is an effective management tool for minimizing losses,optimizing various uses and thus enabling considerable conservation of waternot in irrigation sector alone but in other sectors of water use such asdomestic, power and industrial as well. Water usage determines the amount ofwater lost from a distribution system due to leakage and other reasons such astheft, unauthorized or illegal withdrawals from the systems and the cost ofsuch losses to the utility. Comprehensive water usage management gives adetailed profile of the distribution system and water users, therebyfacilitating easier and effective management of the resources with improvedreliability. It helps in correct diagnosis of the problems faced in order tosuggest optimum solutions. It is also an effective tool for realisticunderstanding and assessment of the present performance level and efficiency ofthe service and the adaptability of the system for future expansion &rectification of faults during modernization. Elements of water usagemanagement include a record of the amount of water issued, consumption ofwater, water loss and suggested measures to address water loss.
Thestudy mainly focus on identifying the water consumption in university of Sri Jayewardenepuraboys hostel and analyses the water usage management to avoid water wastage andensure the efficient usage of water. University is mainly concern about water budget;Hostels are the major water consumption points in university. We should ensurethe efficient usage.
This water audit is a one step to help, be a GreenUniversity.