There are several factors that could be the cause of the superb upraise. Here, I will discuss the three most crucial aspects. Firstly, animal feed treated with antibiotics for growth purposes and to prevent animal illness. Secondly, antibiotic use and abuse in clinical practice and lastly, I will discuss the urgency for education on prescription and use of antibiotics that affect consumer attitudes towards antibiotic use. Antibiotics in animal feed kill off vulnerable bacteria, leave Eng the more competitive and virulent microbes to flourish.
When these bacteria are then passed through a contaminated food source, such as meat, eggs, ND milk, and consumed by people, diseases can be prolonged because conventional antibiotic therapy is not effective against these superb (Arresters FM et al. 2007). What makes matters more alarming is that the genetic material controlling drug resistance can be transferred from bacteria to bacteria (Sun M 1984). Scientists analyzed 200 samples of ground meat from three supermarkets and found 20% contaminated with Salmonella.
Of the bacteria found, a staggering 84% were resistant to at least one antibiotic and more than half were resistant to at least three antibiotics (Duchies AS et al. 995). The danger lies in not being able to treat these infections. An estimated 24. 6 million pounds of antibiotics are fed to animals each year for nontransparent purposes such as to prevent illness and to promote growth. By comparison, only three million pounds of antibiotics are prescribed annually to people (Van HTH et al. 2012). Bernard Vault, director-general of the III World Organization for Animal Health said, “there are over 100 countries worldwide without legislation.
Antibiotics are sold like sweets” (Gilbert N 2013). The emergence of bacterial strains that are increasingly assistant to antibiotics is a growing national and international concern. The spread of organisms such as pantomimic-resistant intercom, multitude- resistant tuberculosis, and nonmetallic-resistant Staphylococcus reassures are all essentially untreatable with routinely available antibiotics. (Iniquity 1999). According to the 1996 National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NAMES), antibiotic dosage prescriptions reached 128 million in 1996, compared with 86 million in 1980.
In pediatrics, the increasing resistance of Streptococcus pneumonia to penicillin is particularly alarming. This is because Spokeswoman is the leading bacterial cause of acute Otis media (MOM), sinusitis, pneumonia, bacteria, and meningitis (Duchies AS et al. 1995). Until now, the primary response to the problem of bacterial resistance has been the development of new antibiotics. The discovery, development, and licensing of antibiotics has been driven by the continuous emergence of bacterial resistant strains and a profitable market (Iniquity 1999).
Physicians report many pressures to prescribe antibiotics. They prescribe antibiotics to Horton or reduce the severity of IRIS, to prevent bacterial superb, to tackle their diagnostic uncertainty, and to meet their desire to “do something. ” But the reason physicians prescribe unnecessary antibiotics is due to the consumers’ unrealistic expectations. However, most consumers do not acknowledge that they pressure their physicians for antibiotics (Hong AS et al. 1999). The reasons why physicians are oversubscribing antimicrobial also directly relate to their experience and education.
Family physicians may see fewer pediatric patients, be less confident with their diagnostic skills for hillier, and be more accustomed to prescribing antibiotics for adults with a similar diagnosis (Hong AS et al. 2003). Patients may have received antibiotics for a similar illness in the past and expect them again. Routinely giving antibiotics reinforces parental expectations that children will receive them in the future. Routine prescribing also fosters a feeling among parents that physicians who do not give antibiotics are not good physicians.
A prescription for an antibiotic also sends parents the message that their child is really sick (Vended EX et al. 2003). With education, parents may pressure health care providers less to dispense antibiotics when they are not indicated. Some parents may even request waiting before prescribing antibiotics for an illness or may even question why antibiotics are being prescribed (Buccaneer and Philipp 1998). The results of a Bedroom Diseases Active Surveillance Network (Footnoted) survey showed that of adult respondents had used antibiotics during the prior month, most (91%) of which were prescribed for a current infection.
Extrapolating from the survey data, we estimate that every dull in the United States in 1 998 used antibiotics an average of 1. 4 times and that approximately 1 in 10 adults who used antibiotics did so without seeing a physician. 58% were not aware of the health dangers associated with antibiotic use. Nearly half (48%) of the respondents indicated that they expected an antibiotic when they visit a doctor (Vended EX et al. 2003). Educating patients is one goal, but physicians also need education. Physicians have individual and consistent patterns of prescribing antibiotics, and they often give diagnoses to justify treatment.
The costs related to managed care, higher patient loads, less time per patient, and cost related with fewer diagnostic tests for patients with respiratory infections, may have an adverse influence on antibiotic prescribing habits (Vended EX et al. 2003). It is also essential that more strict government regulations on the use of antibiotics in animal production be introduced to limit the use of antibiotics. There is an urgent need to replace antibiotic usage in food producing animals with vaccines to limit disease (Van TIT et al. 2012).